Return to Today's Publications


Date Range (YYYY-MM-DD) -
Company, Industry or Technology:
  Search Tips

Fairbanks Astoria NY LED Lighting Project Completed (Ind Report)
Fairbanks Energy Services
Date: 2020-03-18
Fairbanks Energy Services, a full-service design/build energy efficiency firm and developer of comprehensive commercial and industrial projects, reports the completion of a turn-key occupancy sensor equipped LED lighting energy reduction project at Shore Towers, a 23-story luxury waterfront condominium in Astoria, NY, The project was supported with $73,000 in incentives from the local electric utility.

Installed across the 300,000 square foot property, the lighting efficiency solutions are estimated to lower annual energy use in kWh by 161,235. (Source: Faibanks Energy Services, PR Contact: Fairbanks Energy Services, (914) 960-0282,,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Fairbanks Energy Services news,  LED LIght news,  Energy Efficiency news,  

Greenbacker Acquires Rights to 15.3-MW Maine Wind Project (M&A)
Greenbacker Renewable Energy
Date: 2020-03-18
Kansas City, Missouri-based Greenbacker Renewable Energy Co LLC is reports the purchase of the rights to the 15.3-MW RoxWind wind project in Maine . The RoxWind project, which is expected to come online in Q3, 2021, was developed by Palmer Management Corp Horseshoe Valley Wind, and Solaya Energy.

With this project, Greenbacker's first wind asset in Maine, the company's portfolio has expanded to 543.1 MW, including to-be-constructed assets. Of these, wind accounts for 192.5 MW, while 338.6 MW are utility-scale and distributed solar plants. (Source: Greenbacker Renewable Energy, Renewables, 17 Mar., 2020)) Contact: Greenbacker Renewable Energy, 888-292-3178

More Low-Carbon Energy News Greenbacker Renewable Energy ,  

TVA Seeking 200 MW of Renewable Energy (Ind. Report)
Tennessee Valley Authority
Date: 2020-03-18
The Tennessee Valley Authority announced today issued a request for proposals (RFP) for 200 MW of renewable energy that can be brought online by the end of 2023. Proposals are due to TVA by April 24 and the projects selected will be announced in the fall.

Previously this year, contracted with Origis Energy for 200 MW of solar and 200 MWh of battery storage .(Source: TVA, 17 Mar., 2020) Contact: Tennessee Valley Authority, (865) 632-2101,; RFP and doing business with TVA details HERE.

More Low-Carbon Energy News Tennessee Valley Authority,  

Stony Brook Univ. Energy Management Platform Lauded (Ind. Report)
Smart Energy Decisions
Date: 2020-03-18
In the Empire State, Stony Brook University Office of Energy Management reports receipt of a 2020 Innovation Award from Smart Energy Decisions. The award was in recognition of the Office of Energy Management's in-house data analytics platform.

The platform pools data from 400 sensor points and utilises a visual heat map to assist visual analysis to detect electric power consumption and HVAC anomalies around the campus and deal with them efficiently. The Stoney Brook IoT programme has been in place since 2018. (Source: Stoney Brook University, CSO Mag., 17 Mar., 2020) Contact: Stoney Brook University, Tom Lanzilotta, Campus Sustainability and Energy Manager,; Smart Energy Decisions,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Energy Management,  Smart Energy Decisions,  Energy Efficiency,  Energy Management,  

Marine BioEnergy Seaweed Biofuels Project Tests Continue (R&D)
Marine BioEnergy,DOE Advanced Research Projects Agency–Energy (ARPA-E)
Date: 2020-03-18
Further to our 30 Nov., 2018 coverage, researchers at the University of Southern California Wrigley Institute for Environmental Studies will carry out a project proposed by Marine BioEnergy Inc., a California-headquartered company focused on growing and developing Pacific kelp as a source of biofuel.

The Marine Bioenergy plan includes submersible drones dragging lines seeded with kelp plants in deep, nutrient-rich waters during the night then floating it back up to shallow waters to take advantage of the sunlight during the day. The kelp would then be harvested at sea and processed into biocrude, the basis for biofuel.

Under optimal conditions, giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera, which is used to generate a biofuel, can grow up to three feet per day without fresh water, fertilizer, pesticides or fertile land. These attributes make kelp a viable potential substitute for traditional fuels, as it can be sustainably farmed, harvested and converted into biofuel.

Marine BioEnergy ran its first trial last year is tentatively scheduled to begin its next round of tests this April. (Source: DOE ARPA-E, Mar., 2020) Contact: DOE ARPA-E, Marc von Keitz, Program Dir.,; Marine BioEnergy Inc., Cindy Wilcox, Pres. Marine BioEnergy,; USC Wrigley Institute, Diane Kim, Associate Director , (310) 510-0811,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Marine BioEnergy,  DOE ARPA-E,  

India Switching to World's Cleanest Fuel (Int'l. Report)
Indian Oil Corp
Date: 2020-03-16
In New Delhi, the Indian Oil Corp Ltd. (IOC) is reporting that virtually all India refineries are now producing ultra-low sulphur BS-VI (equivalent to Euro-VI grade) petrol and diesel as of the end of 2019. The new fuel is expected to be generally available nationwide by 1 April, this year.

India adopted Euro-III equivalent (Bharat Stage-III) fuel with a sulphur content of 350 ppm in 2010 and then took seven years to move to BS-IV that had a sulphur content of 50 ppm then to BS-VI with 10 ppm with emission standards roughly equal to CNG, according to the release. State-owned oil refineries invested roughly Rs 35,000 crore $4,5 million +-) to upgrade plants to produce ultra-low sulphur fuel. The new fuel will result in a reduction in NOx in BS-VI compliant vehicles by 25 pct in petrol cars and by 70 pct in diesel cars. (Source: Indian Oil Corp. Ltd., Press Trust India, Energy World, Mar., 2020) Contact: Indian Oil Corp., Indian Oil Corporation Ltd.,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Indian Oil Corp,  Alternative Fuel,  

Evergy, Textron Aviation Ink Wind PPA in Kansas (Ind. Report)
Date: 2020-03-16
Wichita, Kansas-based Textron Aviation Inc. is reporting a 20-year wind energy PPA with Kansas City, Missouri-headquartered Evergy, Inc. to meet nearly all of its electric power needs at its Wichita and Independence, Kansas, facilities.

Under the agreement, Evergy will provide 55 MW of energy from the 300 MW Soldier Creek Wind Farm now under construction near Manhattan, Nemaha County,. The wind farm is expected to come online before the year end.

Textron Aviation's electric power consumption is roughly equal to the power used by 22,500 homes. (Source: Textron Aviation, PR, 9 Mar., 2020) Contact: Textron Aviation, Brad White, Snr. VP, (316) 517-6000, Contact: Textron, (401) 421-2800,; Evergy Ventures, Terry Bassham, Pres.,,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Wind,  Evergy,  

Falling Petroleum Oil Prices Diminish Palm Oil Profitability (Int'l.)
Biodiesel,Palm Oil Analytics
Date: 2020-03-16
According to Singapore-headquartered Palm Oil Analytics (POA)-- an independent online publisher of palm oil market news, price, data and analytics -- OIL firms could be absorbing significant costs of fuel blending with the plunge in Brent crude and crude palm oil (CPO) prices.

"Although CPO prices have also fallen, the price spread of CPO to gas oil to date is $140 US on average, which indicates the government must step in and offer a subsidy to make CPO blending into biodiesel an attractive option. The low CPO benchmark is expected to drag palm futures in the first half of 2020 as lower exports and continued restriction of refined palm oil products by India weigh on the commodity. (Source: Palm Oil Analytics, Malaysian Reserve, 10 Mar., 2020) Contact: Palm Oil Analytics,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Biodiesel,  Biodiesel Blend,  Palm Oil,  

CPPIB Completes Pattern Energy Acquisition (M&A, Ind. Report)
Pattern Energy,Canada Pension Plan Investment Board
Date: 2020-03-16
Following up on our 6 Nov., 2019 coverage, the Canada Pension Plan Investment Board (CPPIB) is reporting the completion of its previously reported $6.1 billion – including debt -- acquisition of Pattern Energy.

Pattern Energy presently hold 28 renewable energy plants, predominantly wind farms totaling 4.4 GW in North America. The company also has solar plants and onshore wind operations in Japan as well as a 112-MW offshore wind project under development. (Source: Canada Pension Plan Investment Board, PR, 16 Mar., 2020) Contact: Canada Pension Plan Investment Board,; Pattern Energy Group, Mike Garland, CEO, Matt Dallas, (917) 363-1333,,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Pattern Energy,  Canada Pension Plan Investment Board ,  Wind,  Solar,  Renewable Energy,  

Notable Quotes on Carbon Emissions from ArcelorMittal
Date: 2020-03-16
"The EU's commitment to reduce its carbon emissions to net-zero should be applauded and we hope that decision makers across Europe will back the proposals as they really could hold the key to unlocking solutions that could put a stop to carbon emissions. The climate challenge is unprecedented, and bold action is needed." -- Geert Van Poelvoorde, CEO, ArcelorMittal Europe

As previously reported, ArcelorMittal plans to slash emissions by 30 pct from 2018 levels on flat steel products at its European operations by 2030. The steel giant also plans to publish a target for all of its operations by the middle of this year. (Source: ArcelorMittal, Mar., 2020) Contact: ArcelorMittal, Alan Knight, Corporate Responsibility GM, +32 9 347 31 11,

More Low-Carbon Energy News ArcelorMittal,  Carbon Emissions,  

Itochu Invests in Energy Storage Specialist Eguana Tech (Ind. Report)
Itochu,Eguana Technologies
Date: 2020-03-16
Tokyo-headquartered Japanese general trader Itochu Corp. reports it has closed its previously announced $5 million ($3.6 million US) investment in Calgary, Alberta-based energy storage systems developer Eguana Technologies Inc . Eguana will use the proceeds to finance working capital and general corporate expenditures, as previously reported. (Source: Itochu Corp, Renewables, 16 Mar., 2020) Contact: Eguana Technologies, Justin Holland, CEO, (416) 728.7635, (905) 929-7522,,; Itochu Corp.,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Eguana Technologies ,  Energy Storage,  

Turkey Temporarily Terminating Ethanol-Fuel Blending (Int'l.)
Turkey Energy Market Regulatory Authority
Date: 2020-03-16
In Ankara, Turkey's Energy Market Regulatory Authority has reportedly lifted regulations governing the blending blending of domestically produced ethanol with gasoline for a three month period beginning 1 April, 2020.

The blending regulation was first introduced at 2 pct in 2013 and raised to 3 pct in 2014 to comply with renewable energy policies, reduce import dependency in energy and support the agricultural sector.

On March 13, Turkey scrapped the requirement to include ethanol in gasoline as the ethanol will be used in a disinfectantbid as a measure against the spread of coronavirus. (Source: Turkey Energy Market Regulatory Authority, Hurriyet Daily News, 14 Mar., 2020) Contact: Turkey Energy Market Regulatory Authority,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Ethanol Blend,  

Gates "Increasing Engagement in Tackling Climate" (Ind. Report)
Bill Gates
Date: 2020-03-16
On LinkedIn, Microsoft founder and philanthropist Bill Gates, co-founder of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and co-founder of The Giving Pledge, announced "I have made the decision to step down from both of the public boards on which I serve -- Microsoft and Berkshire Hathaway -- to dedicate more time to philanthropic priorities including global health and development, education, and my increasing engagement in tackling climate change,." (Source: Bill Gates, Linkedin 13 Mar., 2020

More Low-Carbon Energy News Bill Gates,  Climate Change,  

Carbon Terminology Refresher (Opinions, Editorials & Asides)
Carbon Emissions
Date: 2020-03-16
From the Land Down Under, The Fifth Estate has offered the following brief clarifications of the plethora of commonly used carbon emissions related terms:
  • Net Zero Energy -- There's two ways of looking at this. The first is based on simple math, and means a building, precinct, process or region generates as much energy within its own boundaries or site as it pulls in from elsewhere over a specific period -- most often a year. The other definition is a building or precinct or region that generates 100 per cent of its own energy needs on site or within its boundaries.

  • Net Positive Energy -- When a building or precinct generates more energy than it uses and shares that energy through either a local microgrid or by sending it into the main grid, it becomes energy positive.

  • Carbon Negative -- Carbon negative is used for larger scales than individual buildings, such as precincts, regions, businesses or even entire nations. It means absorbing more carbon than all combined carbon emissions within the specific area or operation.

  • Carbon Neutral -- Carbon neutral is basically a balancing act where a building, business or region sequesters or offsets as much carbon as it emits.

  • Carbon Offsets -- All offsets are not created equal -- there are dirt-cheap offsets sloshing around the global carbon market from questionable projects in far-flung places. But not only are they scientifically and ethically questionable, they also will not meet the standards required for formal third-party carbon neutral certification. The best offsets deliver co-benefits beyond just sequestering carbon, such as improving biodiversity, increasing water quality or catchment protection, generating social benefits, local economic benefits or supporting Indigenous cultural practices and knowledge.

  • Operational Emissions -- Most carbon accounting undertaken for the purposes of carbon neutral certification focus on carbon emissions generated by the operation of a building, business or region. It's not just emissions from energy or fuel use though. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol defines three "scopes" or categories of carbon emissions as follows -- Scope 1 emissions are direct emissions from "owned or controlled sources" such as a fleet of vehicles, a power plant or a manufacturing plant. Scope 2 emissions are indirect emissions from the generation of energy used within a building, plant or region. Scope 3 emissions are all the indirect emissions in a business, process or region's value chain both upstream and downstream. This would include something like methane emissions from waste sent to landfill, or the emissions from energy used to make the widgets that a business procures then retails.

  • Embodied Carbon -- Basically, almost everything we use from a smartphone to a building, has embodied carbon. Embodied or upfront carbon refers to the emissions released during the manufacture and transport of building materials, and the construction as well the end-of-life-phases of built assets. (Source: Fifth Estate Australia, Mar, 2020)

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Carbon,  Carbon Emissions,  

  • Resource Efficiency and Climate Change: Material Efficiency Strategies for a Low-Carbon Future (Ind. Report Attached)
    United Nations Environment Programme
    Date: 2020-03-16
    The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) International Resource Panel has just published a recent report titled Resource Efficiency and Climate Change: Material Efficiency Strategies for a Low-Carbon Future. Commissioned by the G7 countries, it shows that natural resource extraction and processing account for more than 90 pct of global biodiversity loss and water stress, and around half of global greenhouse gas emissions.

    According to the report, emissions from the material cycle of residential buildings in the G7 and China could be reduced by at least 80 pct in 2050 through a series of material efficiency strategies. A design with fewer or alternative materials, and more recycling of construction materials are among the most promising strategies, it says.

    Download Resource Efficiency and Climate Change: Material Efficiency Strategies for a Low-Carbon Future HERE. (Source: The United Nations Environment Programme, Mar., 2020) Contact: UN Environment, Martina Otto:,

    More Low-Carbon Energy News UNEP,  Climate Change,  Energy Efficiency,  

    EDF, China Energy Investments Partner on Offshore Wind (Int'l.)
    China Energy Investment Corporation
    Date: 2020-03-16
    Beijing-based China Energy Investment Corporation (China Energy) is reporting it will jointly develop a 502 MW offshore wind project in east China's Jiangsu province with French energy giant EDF Group.

    The project, which is expected to come in at 7.9 billion yuan ($1.13 billion), will generate 1,390 million kWh of electricity per year, which is equivalent to 441,900 tons of standard coal and will satisfy the annual electricity demand of almost 2 million people when commissioned in early 2021. The offshore wind power plant will be jointly financed, built and operated by China Energy with 62.5 pct and EDF Group holding the balance. (Source: China Energy Investments Corp., PR, reve, 14 Mar., 2020) Contact: China Energy Investment Corporation,; EDF Group, Jean-Bernard Levy, CEO,

    More Low-Carbon Energy News EDF Group,  China Wind,  Offshore Wind,  

    Dominion Touts Neighborhood Energy Efficiency Program (Ind Report)
    Dominion Energy
    Date: 2020-03-16
    Dominion Energy is reporting the launch of its Neighborhood Energy Efficiency Program offering free energy-saving products to eligible customers. The residential Neighborhood Energy Efficiency Program includes the installation of the following energy efficiency measu; low-flow kitchen faucet aerators; electric water heater wraps and insulation for water heater pipes; advanced power strips; adjustment of electric water heater temperature, and HVAC air filter replacement.

    Dominion Energy started the Neighborhood Energy Efficiency Program in 2013 to provide eligible neighborhoods with energy education and the direct installation of energy-saving improvements for residential customers at no cost.

    By taking advantage of the energy-efficiency tips, rebates and incentives associated with EnergyWise programs, Dominion Energy customers have reduced electricity usage by more than 797,000 MWh during the last eight years -- sufficient energy to power 67,463 homes for a year. (Source: Dominion Energy, The T&D, Mar., 2020) Contact: Dominion Energy EnergyWise, 877-510-7234,

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Dominion Energy,  Energy Efficiency,  

    Bioreactor Specialist Raises $15Mn (Ind. Report, Funding)
    Culture Biosciences
    Date: 2020-03-16
    In the Golden State, San Francisco-based Culture Biosciences reports it raised $15 million in a first round of funding led by Cultivian Sandbox Ventures. Culture serves companies working to scale up synthetic biology discoveries by renting bioreactors that connect to the cloud.

    According to the company website, "We've developed a digital biomanufacturing platform to enable scientists to run, monitor and analyze bioreactors faster and more conveniently than traditional approaches. We've built it from the ground up by integrating automated bioreactors, robotic sample handling, and cloud data monitoring and analysis." (Source: Culture Biosciences, PR, C&EN News, Mar., 2020) Contact: Culture Biosciences,,

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Biomanufacture,  Culture Biosciences,  Bioreactor,  

    Orsted Selects Rhode Island Offshore Operations Hub (Ind. Report)
    Orsted,Offshore Wind,Deepwater Wind
    Date: 2020-03-16
    Boston-headquartered Orsted US Offshore Wind reports it is establishing an operations "hub" in Rhode Island. As previously reported, Orsted acquired Deepwater Wind of Rhode Island for $510 million in 2018.

    Additionally, as previously reported, Orsted U.S. Offshore Wind operates the Block Island Wind Farm and has been awarded over 2,900 MW of capacity through six projects. In June, 2019, the New Jersey Board of Public Utilities selected Orsted to develop the Garden State's first offshore wind farm 15 miles off the coast of Atlantic City. (Source: Orsted, Newsday, 15 Mar., 2020) Contact: Orsted, Thomas Brostrom, Pres. Orsted North America, CEO Orsted U.S. Offshore Wind, +45 99 55 97 22,; Deepwater Wind, Jeffrey Grybowski, CEO, (401) 274-2000,

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Orsted,  Offshore Wind,  Deepwater Wind,  

    CaGBC Updates Zero Carbon Building Standard (Ind. Report)
    Canada Green Building Council
    Date: 2020-03-16
    The Canada Green Building Council (CaGBC) is reporting updates to its Zero Carbon Building (ZCB) Standard aimed at accelerating the adoption of zero carbon building practices in new and existing buildings.

    The updated ZCB-Design guides the design of new buildings, as well as the retrofit of existing structures. ZCB-Performance provides a framework for verifying buildings have achieved zero carbon and must be revisited annually. ZCB Standard v2 updates focus on these key components:

  • Embodied Carbon -- Projects must now reduce and offset carbon emissions for the building’s life-cycle, including those associated with the manufacture and use of construction materials.

  • Refrigerants -- ZCB Standard v2 encourages best practices to minimize potential leaks of refrigerants that, when released, can have significant short-term impacts on climate.

  • Energy Efficiency: -- ZCB Standard v2 promotes the efficient use of clean energy with more stringent energy efficiency and air-tightness requirements.

  • Innovation: ZCB-Design encourages innovation by requiring projects demonstrate two innovative strategies to reduce carbon emissions.

    These updates are designed to eliminate carbon outputs, while also being flexible enough for zero carbon buildings to reach the mainstream. The updates also provide the guidance for more owners and developers to build to zero now and as part of their plans for the future. (Source: CaGBC Website, 2020) Contact: CaGBC, Thomas Mueller, CEO and President, (866) 941-1184,,

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Canada Green Building Council,  Green Building,  Energy Efficiency,  

  • S&P Dow Jones Indices Launches Carbon Emissions Single-Commodity Index (Ind. Report)
    S&P Dow Jones
    Date: 2020-03-16
    S&P Dow Jones Indices is reporting the launch of the S&P GSCI Carbon Emission Allowances (EUA) EUR. The new index provides investors with a reliable and publicly available investment performance benchmark for European Carbon Emission Allowances -- EU emissions trading system (EU ETS), a market-based cap-and-trade method developed to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions by companies. The S&P GSCI Carbon Emission Allowances (EUA) EUR index is based on the ICE EUA Futures Contract. (Source: S&P Dow Jones, STL News, Mar.,2020)

    More Low-Carbon Energy News S&P Dow Jones ,  UE ETS,  Carbon Emissions,  

    Global Sweet Sorghum Ethanol Market Report Offered (Ind. Report)
    Sweet Sorghum
    Date: 2020-03-16
    Market Research Hub is offering Sweet Sorghum Ethanol Market Insights 2018-2025, an in-depth study of the current state of the global Sweet Sorghum Ethanol industry.

    The report provides key statistics on the market status of the Sweet Sorghum Ethanol manufacturers and in-depth insights into the 2018-2025 global Sweet Sorghum Ethanol market. The report depicts the global total market of Sweet Sorghum Ethanol industry by geographic region, product type and key players -- Poet, Valero Energy Corporation, Green Plains Renewable Energy, Flint Hills Resources, Chemguide, Shrijee Group, Anchor Ethanol -- the company profile, product specifications, capacity, production value, and 2018-2025 market shares for each company.

    Reports details HERE . Report purchase information HERE. (Source: Market Research Hub, 1Daily Science, 5 Mar., 2020) Contact: Market Research Hub, 800-998-4852,,

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Sweet Sorghum,  Ethanol ,  

    Creating a Low Carbon World, the Case for a Carbon Border Adjustment -- Steel Maker's Manifesto (Report Attached)
    Date: 2020-03-13
    Further to our 13 Dec., 20190 coverage, Belgium-based steel maker ArcelorMittal is calling for member states and Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) to support the introduction of a carbon border adjustment (CBA) as part of the European Commission's €1 trillion Green Deal aimed at making the 28-member trading bloc carbon neutral by 2050.

    In a manifesto -- Creating a Low Carbon World, the Case for a Carbon Border Adjustment -- ArcelorMittal notes CBA should be one of the first Green Deal measures adopted by the new European Commission, as it will help to create the market conditions and protections needed for companies to make investments and transition to carbon neutrality without disruption.

    Download ArcelorMittal's Climate Action in Europe manifesto HERE. (Source: ArcelorMittal, Mar., 2020) Contact: ArcelorMittal, Alan Knight, Corporate Responsibility GM, +32 9 347 31 11,

    More Low-Carbon Energy News ArcelorMittal,  Carbon Emissions,  

    Fort Collins Aims for 20 pct Carbon Emission Drop by 2021 (Ind Report)
    Fort Collins
    Date: 2020-03-13
    In Colorado, the city of Fort Collins Climate Action plans calls for the city of 165,00 +- residents to reduce CO2 emission by 20 pct by 2021 and further reduce by 80 pct of 2005 levels by 2030. The plan calls for the city to achieve carbon neutrality by 2050.

    According to the Climate Action Plan, in total, Fort Collins emits 2 million metric tpy of carbon dioxide in community greenhouse gases.

    Fort Collins Climate Action Plan details HERE. (Source: City of Fort Collins, Rocky Mountain Collegian, 11 Mar., 2020) Contact: City of Fort Collins, Lindsay Ex, Climate Program Manager,

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Fort Collins,  Carbon Emissions,  Climate Change,  

    Washington Legislators Pass Solar Recycling Bill (Reg. & Leg.)
    Washington State
    Date: 2020-03-13
    Sitting in Olympia, the Washington State House and Senate are reporting the unopposed passage of legislation covering the final design and adoption of a comprehensive solar recycling program that is data-driven and considers the up to 50-year service life of modules in the field.

    The legislation requires the state to create a task force to study solar end-of-life and related issues and use this information to suggest revisions to the state's existing solar energy program. (Source: SEIA, Various Media, Solar Ind., 11 Mar. 2020)

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Solar,  Renewable Energy,  

    Ethanol Producer Advances Carbon Sequestration Project (Ind. Report)
    Red Trail Energy
    Date: 2020-03-13
    Following up on our 13th Dec., 2019 report, Richardton, North Dakota-based corn ethanol producer Red Trail Energy LLC reports that with the completion of a drill pad at its Richardton ethanol facility it expects to begin drilling a one-mile or deeper stratigraphic well for carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in April. (Source: Red Trail Energy, KFGO, 11 Mar., 2020) Contact: Red Trail Energy, Gerald Bachmeier, CEO, (701) 974-3308,

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Red Trail Energy,  CCS,  Carbon Capture,  

    DOE Energy Storage Grand Challenge Program Launched (Ind Report)
    Energy Storage Grand Challenge Program
    Date: 2020-03-13
    In Washington, the Trump administration DOE is touting the recently launched Energy Storage Grand Challenge Program aimed at accelerating the development of next-generation energy storage technology and creating and sustaining global leadership in energy storage utilization and exports by 2030. The Challenges goals are as follows:
  • Technology Development -- Establish ambitious, achievable performance goals, and a comprehensive R&D portfolio to achieve them;

  • Technology Transfer -- Accelerate the technology pipeline from research to system design to private sector adoption through rigorous system evaluation, performance validation, siting tools, and targeted collaborations;

  • Policy and Valuation -- Develop best-in-class models, data, and analysis to inform the most effective value proposition and use cases for storage technologies;

  • Manufacturing and Supply Chain --Design new technologies to strengthen U.S. manufacturing and recyclability, and to reduce dependence on foreign sources of critical materials; and
  • Workforce -- Train the next generation of American workers to meet the needs of the 21st century electric grid and energy storage value chain.

    Download DOE Energy Storage Grand Challenge program details HERE (Source: US DOE, Mar, 2020) Contact: Energy Storage Grand Challenge Program,

  • Ideol Claims FloatGen Floating Wind Pilot Progress (Int'l. Report)
    Date: 2020-03-13
    Following up on our October 18, 2017 coverage, Paris-headquartered offshore wind developer Ideol reports its FloatGen floating wind pilot in the French Atlantic Ocean has outreached production levels reaching more than 920MWh of output for the month of February.

    The 2MW unit, based around a Vestas turbine and damping pool foundation also saw its highest-ever monthly capacity factor, 66.3 pct -- significantly better than the average bottom-fixed offshore machine, which averages around 50 pct, according to a company release. (Source: Ideol, Recharge, Mar., 2020)Contact: Ideol, +33 (0)4 86 20 80 50,

    More Low-Carbon Energy News FloatGen ,  Floating Wind,  Offshore Wind,  Wind,  

    NSW Cuts Home Battery Scheme Subsidies (Int'l. Report)
    Battery Energy Storage
    Date: 2020-03-13
    In the Land Down Under, the government of New South Wales, Australia, reports due to a record number of battery installations throughout 2019 its $6000 Home Battery Scheme subsidy has been cut by 30 pct and may be further decreased throughout 2020.

    The Energy NSW Home Battery Scheme details are HERE. (Source: Energy NSA, 12 Mar., 2020) Contact: Energy NSW,

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Energy Storage,  Battery Energy Storage,  

    WiSolar Inks LG Electronics Solar Panel Dealership Deal (Int'l.)
    WiSolar, LG Electronics
    Date: 2020-03-13
    Johannesburg-based WiSolar is reporting a deal under which it will supply LG Electronics MonoX and NeON2 Black solar panels to the South African market.

    The LG MonoX Plus and LG NeON2 Black solar panel has a 20.4 pct efficiency rating on 60 cell 350W and 20.1 pct on 345W. The product features enhanced durability, performance under real-world conditions, an enhanced warranty and aesthetic design suitable for roofs. (Source: WiSolar, Mar., 2020) Contact: WiSolar, +27 10 446 7671,; LG Electronics,

    More Low-Carbon Energy News WiSolar,  LG Electronics,  Solar,  Solar Panel,  

    DOE Ordered to Set Appliance Efficiency Standards (Ind. Report)
    Date: 2020-03-13
    The Trump administration DOE has been ordered by the U.S. Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals to impose energy efficiency, energy conservation standard upgrades for four set of appliances first proposed under the Obama Administration. Industrial air compressors, portable air conditioners, and uninterruptible power supplies or battery backup devices used to protect computers and other sensitive equipment are covered in the ruling.

    Under DOE's new rule, federal appliance energy efficiency upgrades must be "significant" -- defined under the rule as saving at least 0.3 quads of energy over 30 years or improving energy use by at least 10 pct above existing standards. (Source: US DOE, Heartland Institute, 12 Mar., 2020)

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Appliance Efficiency,  Energy Efficiency,  

    Neste Acquiring Ill. Grease Collector-Recycler (Ind Report, M&A)
    Neste,Mahoney Environmental
    Date: 2020-03-13
    Espoo, Finland-headquartered Neste, the world's largest producer of renewable diesel and renewable jet fuel refined from waste and residuesis, reports it will acquire 100 pct of Joilet, Illinois-based Mahoney Environmental, a collector and recycler of used cooking oil and its affiliated entities. The deal is subject customary closing conditions and regulatory approval.

    Neste operates renewable diesel refineries in Singapore, Rotterdam in the Netherlands, and Porvoo in Finland where it produces Neste MY Renewable Diesel and sustainable aviation fuel (SAF). (Source: Neste Corp, 11 Mar.,2020) Contact: Neste US, Jeremy Baines, Pres, +358 10 458 4128,; Mahoney Environmental, 800-892-9392,

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Biodiesel,  Neste,  Biofuel,  Cooking Oil,  

    BC Carbon Capture Storage Assessment Completed (Ind. Report)
    Date: 2020-03-13
    Global geoscience data for exploration & production specialist TGS reports completion of a Geological Carbon Storage Atlas for British Columbia (Canada) for a major oil and gas company. The study provides the most up-to-date understanding of geological carbon storage locations, onshore and offshore, throughout the province of British Columbia.

    Through collaboration with its partner Canadian Discovery Limited, TGS leveraged its world-class basin evaluation expertise, subsurface data library, and geological knowledge and experience through working in British Columbia, to create a framework for carbon storage assessment and atlas for potential storage locations, according to the TGS release. (Source: TGS. Strategic Research Institute, SteelGuru,, Gasoil News , 12 Mar., 2020) Contact: TGS, Katja Akentieva,,

    More Low-Carbon Energy News CCS,  Carbon Storage ,  

    Bio-based Dyneema Effort Announced (Int'l. Report)
    UPM Biofuel,SABIC, Royal DSM
    Date: 2020-03-13
    Royal DSM, SABIC, and UPM Biofuels report they are joining forces to help reduce the environmental footprint of Royal DSM's Dyneema -- "the world's strongest fibre" -- and see Dyneema transition to bio-based feedstock leveraging Saudi Arabia-based SABIC's TRUCIRCLE solutions for certified renewable products.

    The Dyneema bio-based material will be ISCC Plus certified and is expected to be available from April 2020.

    Finland-based UPM Biofuels produces bio-based feedstock UPM BioVerno from the residue of the pulping process. This is then processed by SABIC to make renewable ethylene. TRUCIRCLE includes certified renewable products, specifically resins and chemicals from bio-based feedstock that are not in competition with the food chain and help to reduce carbon emissions. By applying a mass balancing approach, DSM is then able to create bio-based Dyneema fibre, according to the DSM release. (Source: DSM, PR, EPPM, 12 Mar., 2020) Contact: RoyalDSM,; SABIC,; UPM Biofuels,

    More Low-Carbon Energy News UPM Biofuel,  SABIC,  Royal DSM,  

    Iberdrola Snares French Offshore Wind Farm Developer (Int'l., M&A)
    Date: 2020-03-13
    Madrid-based wind energy major Iberdrola reports it has taken 100 pct ownership of Ailes Marines -- developer and operator the €2.4 billion Saint-Brieuc offshore wind farm project in France. Iberdrola, which previously held 70 pct of the consortium's capital, acquired the remaining 30 pct from Avel Vor, after receiving the French Ministry of the Economy approval.

    The 62-turbine project, which is scheduled to begin construction in 2021, will have an installed capacity of 496MW sufficient for roughly 835,000 household, when fully operational in 2023. (Source: Iberdrola, The Corner, 11 Mar., 2020) Contact: Iberdrola, Jonathan Cole, Global Managing Director for Offshore Wind, Ailes Marines,

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Iberdrola,  Offshore Wind,  

    Canadian Solar Inks Mexican Solar PPA, Project Agreement (Int'l.)
    Canadian Solar
    Date: 2020-03-13
    Ontario, Canada-based solar specialist Canadian Solar Inc. reports the recent signing of a 15-year Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) with Techgen S.A. de C.V., a combined cycle power plant operator, which produces electricity for the manufacturing plants in Mexico.

    Under the terms of th agreement, Canadian Solar will build a 103-megawatt-peak (MWp) solar power project in the Mexican state of Zacatecas. (Source: Canadian Solar, NASDAQ, 11 Mar., 2020) Contact: Techgen S.A. de C.V., +52-818865 2828,; Canadian Solar Solutions,

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Canadian Solar,  Solar,  

    Neste Oyj Targets Carbon-Neutral Production by 2035 (Int'l Report)
    Date: 2020-03-13
    Espoo, Finland-headquartered biofuels and sustainable aviation fuels (SAF) producer Neste Oyi reports it is committed to reaching carbon neutral production by 2035. The commitment complements Neste's other strategic climate commitment of reducing customers' greenhouse gas emissions by at least 20 million tpy by 2030. To that end, the company:

  • Continues to focus on energy efficiency to optimize the use of fuel gas, electricity, hydrogen and steam in its production. The improvements in the turnaround at Porvoo refinery in 2020 will decrease production emissions by more than 100 kt CO2eq annually;

  • Increases the use of renewable electricity at its production sites. As an example of this, Neste has already agreed to start using wind power in Finland;

  • Increases the weight of greenhouse gas emissions in the investment calculations and business case evaluation;

  • Explores new, less emitting production methods, for example utilizing biogas or electrolysis for hydrogen production;

  • Has started a project for GHG emission reductions at the Porvoo production site, focusing on carbon capture and storage (CCS) and identifies reliable compensation models for the remaining part which cannot be achieved by emission reductions.

    Neste is working on rolling out the detailed plan and timeline for implementing the initiatives aimed at carbon neutral production by 2035. (Source: Neste Oyi, PR, Mar., 2020) Contact: Neste Oyi, Salla Ahonen, VP Sustainability, +358 50 458 5076,,

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Neste,  Carbon Neutral,  Carbon Emissions,  

  • Santa Ana Lauded for Cutting Energy Consumption (Ind. Report)
    SBT Alliance,New Buildings Institute
    Date: 2020-03-13
    In the Golden State, the Smarter Building Technologies Alliance (SBT) Smart Energy Decisions Innovation Award for driving greater energy efficiency through smarter IoT-enabled technologies has been awarded to the city of Santa Ana for an energy retrofit and retro-commissioning project estimated to curb energy consumption for the city's HVAC by 88 pct. The project was funded by the California Energy Commission and was also part of the NBI "Leading in LA" initiative.

    The Smart Energy Decisions Innovation Award recognizes outstanding work in support of the dramatic transformation taking place in today's electric power markets. (Source: Smarter Building Technologies Alliance, Inc., PR, Mar., 2020) Contact: Smarter Building Technologies Alliance, Inc., Kevin Martin, 800-832-2943 Ext. 704,,; New Buildings Institute,

    More Low-Carbon Energy News SBT Alliance,  New Buildings Institute,  

    PREEM Selects Topsoe Hydroflex for Gothenburg Refinery (Int'l.)
    PREEM. Haldor Topsoe
    Date: 2020-03-13
    Stockholm-headquartered PREEM reports its selection of Lyngby, Denmark-based Haldor Topsoe A/S's HydroFlex renewable-fuel technology to produce clean renewable diesel and jet fuel at its Gothenburg refinery in Sweden. The 16,000 bpd unit, which is expected to come on line in 2024, will produce renewable fuels from tall oil, tallow, and other renewable feedstocks.

    Preem is the largest fuel company in Sweden, with a refining capacity of more than 18 million m3 of crude oil per year.

    Topsoe's HydroFlex is an industry-proven technology that produces renewable fuels, such as gasoline, diesel, and sustainable aviation fuel, from all renewable feedstocks. Topsoe will license and supply basic engineering, proprietary equipment, catalysts and technical services. (Source: PREEM, PR, Chem Engineering, 12 Mar.,2020) Contact: Haldor Topsoe, Morten Schaldemose, , EVP,; PREEM, Petter Holland, CEO, Pres., +46 (0) 10 459 1000,

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Renewable Fuels,  PREEM,   . Haldor Topsoe,  Renewable Fuel,  Renewable Diesel,  

    Albemarle Awarded USGBC LEED Gold Certification (Ind. Report)
    Albemarle Corporation
    Date: 2020-03-13
    North Carolina-based specialty chemicals industry leader Albemarle Corporation is reporting receipt of US Green Building Council LEED Gold certification for its headquarters 141,000 square-foot expansion project in Charlotte.

    The USGBC recognized the company for implementing practical and measurable strategies and solutions aimed at achieving high performance in the following categories: water efficiency, energy use and atmosphere, materials and resources, indoor environmental quality, location and transportation. (Source: Albermarle Corp., Mar., 2020) Contact: Albemarle Corporation , Luke Kissam, CEO, 225-388-7402,; US Green Building Council, Mahesh Ramanujam, Pres., CEO, (202) 552-1500,

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Albemarle Corporation,  USGBC,  LEED Certification,  Energy Efficiency,  

    Cellulosic Biofuel Significantly Mitigate Climate Change (Int'l Study)
    Biomass. Ben-Gurion University of the Negev
    Date: 2020-03-11
    A recent long-term field study by researchers at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (BGU) and Michigan State University (MSU) has found cellulosic biofuels derived from switchgrass, giant miscanthus, poplar trees, maize residuals, restored native prairie, and a combination of grasses and vegetation that grows spontaneously following field abandonment, could significantly mitigate global warming by reducing carbon emissions.

    The study found when compared with petroleum only emissions, cellulosic ethanol was "78--290 better in reducing carbon emissions; ethanol was 204--416 pct improved, biomass powered electric vehicles powered by biomass was 74--303 pct cleaner and biomass-powered electric vehicles combined with CSS was 329--558 pct superior." The research will next assess other environmental and economic aspects of bioenergy crops.

    The study was conducted at Michigan State University's (MSU) Kellogg Biological Station and the University of Wisconsin's Arlington Research Station which is part of the U.S. DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center. Financial support was provided by the U.S. DOE Office of Science, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. National Science Foundation and Michigan State University AgBioResearch. (Source: American Associates, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, PR, EurekaAlerts, 9 Mar.,2020) Contact: American Associates, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev. (212) 302-6443,,

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Cellulosic Ethnol,  Biomass ,  Climate Change,  Global Warming,  

    Abu Dhabi Awards 43,000 LED Streetlight Contract (Int'l. Report)
    Abu Dhabi City Municipality
    Date: 2020-03-11
    In the UAE, the Abu Dhabi City Municipality (ADM) Department of Municipalities and Transport reports it has awarded a Traffic Assets and Systems Operation and Management contract to Tatweer Construction for the replacement of 43,000 streetlights with energy-efficient LED units. The upgrade to LEDs is expected to save 900 million kWh worth $72 million over the 12 year contract term.

    As per a statement, the concession will target specific requirements and energy saving targets, including operating and maintaining the new devices, and installing and maintaining a smart central system to control the lighting throughout the agreement period. (Source: Abu Dhabi City Municipality, ME Construction News, 9 Mar., 2020)Contact: Abu Dhabi City Municipality, +971 2 6788888,; Tatweer, +971 2 441 5551,,

    More Low-Carbon Energy News LED Light,  LED Street Light,  Energy Efficiency Ligh,  

    Chinese 2019 Wind, Solar Generation Tops 400 billion kwh (Int'l.)
    China National Energy Administration Solar
    Date: 2020-03-11
    According to the China National Energy Administration, in 2019 China's wind power generation capacity exceeded 400 billion kilowatt-hours (kwh) for the first time, reaching 405.7 billion kwh, almost quadruple the amount produced by the Three Gorges Hydropower Station in the same year.

    Meanwhile, China's photovoltaic power generation capacity reached 224.3 billion kwh, a year-on-year growth of 26.3 pct while China's PV products exports grew 29 pct to $20.78 billion for a year-on-year growth of 29 percent and the second highest in history. (Source: China National Energy Administration, News Ghana, 9 Mar., 2020) Contact: China Photovoltaic Industry Association, +86 10 6820 0513,,; China National Energy Administration,

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Solar,  China Solar,  

    Virginia Legislates Clean Economy, Renewables Act (Reg. & Leg.)
    Virginia Renewable Energy
    Date: 2020-03-11
    In the Old Dominion State, the recently passed Virginia Clean Economy Act will create a state Renewable Energy Portfolio program requiring 30 pct or more of Virginia's electricity comes from renewable energy sources by 2030. By 2050, the Act requires that 100 pct of the state's electricity will be zero-emissions.

    The Act includes measures to harness wind and solar power, expand home rooftop solar and reduce energy waste through mandatory efficiency standards. The act also sets a 5.2-gigawatt offshore wind power target, one of the largest state commitments to offshore wind to date and one with the potential to power up to 1.5 million Virginia homes. The Act also confirms the Old Dominion State's participation in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) cap-and-invest program, which to date has provided net benefits of over $4 billion to participating members, while helping them slash carbon emissions over 50 pct. (Source: PR, Mar., 2020)

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Renewable Energy,  Wind,  Solar,  Virginia Renewable Energy,  

    Syracuse Marriott Uses C-PACE Program for Energy Efficiency Upgrades (Ind. Report)
    Date: 2020-03-11
    In the Empire State, the Marriott Downtown Syracuse Hotel it used the C-PACE program to fund almost $10 million in cost-effective energy efficient improvements including HVAC, LED lighting and other energy efficiency improvements.

    The C-PACE program allows building owners to finance qualifying energy efficiency and renewable energy improvements on via a voluntary assessment on their property tax bill. (Source: Marriott Downtown Syracuse, Syracuse University Press, WAER, 9 Mar., 2020) Contact: Marriott Downtown Syracuse,; C-PACE Alliance, Cliff Kellogg (202) 744-1984,,

    More Low-Carbon Energy News PACE,  C-PACE,  Energy Efficiency,  

    Tri Global Offloads 180-MW Flatland Solar Project (Ind. Report, M&A)
    Tri Global Energy,Silverpeak
    Date: 2020-03-11
    In the Lone Star State, Dallas-based renewable energy developer Tri Global Energy is reporting an agreement to sell the 180-MW Flatland Solar project south of Lubbock to Silverpeak, an alternative investment firm focused on real estate, energy and credit. Tri Global will continue as lead developer through project financing and construction.

    The 960-acre, 690,000 panel Flatland Solar project -- Tri Global's first Texas solar project -- is expected to break ground later this year.

    Great Bay Renewables, a subsidiary of Altius Renewable Royalties, provided royalty financing in support of Tri Global Energy completing project development. (Source: Tri Global Energy, PR, Valdosta Daily Times, Mar.,2020) Contact: Tri Global Energy, John B. Billingsley, CEO, 972.290.0825,,

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Solar,  Tri Global Energy,  

    DEWA Touts New Solar, Energy Efficiency R&D Center (Int'l. Report)
    Dubai Electricity and Water Authority
    Date: 2020-03-11
    In the UAE, the Dubai Electricity and Water Authority (DEWA) reports the opening of the 5-GW Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum Solar Park research, testing and certification facility focused on solar power, energy efficiency, and the integration of smart grids.

    DEWA claims that the new R&D center is the largest, most comprehensive solar testing and certification facility in the UAE. (Source: DEWA, 10 Mar., 2020) Contact: DEWA,

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Dubai Electricity and Water Authority,  Solar,  Energy Efficiency,  Smart Grid,  

    Ameren Calls for Higher Renewables Portfolio Standard (Ind Report)
    Ameren Illinois
    Date: 2020-03-11
    Ameren Illinois is proposing the Downstate Clean Energy Affordability Act which, if implemented, would raise the state's Renewable Portfolio Standard goal to 32.5 pct by 2030. If adopted, the Act will identify and increase renewable energy sources and and lower energy costs in central and southern Illinois.

    Under the plan, Ameren Illinois will increase the production of renewable energy and put that energy on the grid for a fraction of the cost to downstate customers as compared to other proposals. Part of the plan would include continued work with other renewable energy-based companies and developers.

    Illinois has mandated 19 renewable energy by 2021, 25 pct by 2025 and 100 pct renewable energy by 2050, according to Ameren. (Source: Ameren Illinois, MY Journal Courier, 10 Mar., 2020) Contact: Ameren Illinois,

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Ameren Illinois,  Renewable Energy,  

    Oregon Gov. Exec. Order Stresses Energy Efficiency (Ind. Report)
    Date: 2020-03-11
    In Salem, Oregon Governor Kate Brown (Dem) has issued a 14-page executive order aimed at sharply curbing greenhouse gas emissions with a full-court press by government agencies. The executive order comes less than a week after a Republican walkout killed Oregon Senate Bill 1530,

    Under the order, the Department of Consumer and Business Services will set new building energy efficiency goals aimed at a 60 pct reduction in annual energy consumption, compared to 2006 building codes. Additionally, the Department of Energy will update home appliance energy efficiency standards "at least to levels equivalent to the most stringent standards among West Coast jurisdictions." In total, 18 state agencies and commissions directing a large portion of the state's bureaucracy are tasked under the order aimed reducing emissions and addressing climate change. (Source: Office of Gov. Kate Brown, OPB, 10 Mar., 2020) Contact: Office of Gov. Kate Brown, (503) 378-4582,

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Energy Efficiency,  

    UK Anaerobic Digestion Consultancy Set for Launch (Int'l.)
    Future Biogas
    Date: 2020-03-11
    In the UK, Fern AD, a new BOCK and Guildford-based Future Biogas partnership venture farm and anaerobic digestion (AD) technology brand launching in April, 2020, will offer top-performance products and specialist consultancy for the UK agricultural and AD sectors.

    Specialising solely in AD technology, Fern helps AD plant owners and managers use the latest science to optimize biogas outputs. Fern AD is also the exclusive retailer of its own "T16" digester additive, made with a balanced recipe of trace elements.

    Future Biogas' biologists have extensive experience in the field, working on the company's 13 AD plants. The firm harvests 250,000 tonnes of maize to power its plants and produces 50MW of biogas every hour of the year, according to the company website. (Source: Fern AD Website, Mar.,2020) Contact: Fern, Helen Wyman, Mgr., +44 0 7830 66452,; Future Biogas, Philip Lukas, Managing Dir., +44 (0) 1483 375 920,,

    More Low-Carbon Energy News Future Biogas,  Biogas,  Methane,  Anaerobic Digestion ,  

    Showing 600 to 650 of 9283.

    Go to page:
    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186