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Spanish Oil Giant Diversifies into Renewables (Int'l)
Date: 2017-11-03
Madrid-headquartered Spanish oil giant Cepsa reports it has acquired the rights to develop its first wind farm in Jerez (Cadiz) at a cost of €35 million euros. This the company's first foray into the wind energy sector and is in keeping with the company's energy business diversification program. The project, which is expected to incorporate 11 turbines totaling 28,8 MW, is expected to be online by the end of 2018.

According to Cepsa, its plan to move into the renewables market will require an investment of € 40 billion over 15 years. The plan will consist of three five-year stages, with most of the projects being launched in the first stage. (Source: Cepsa, The Corner, 31 Oct., 2017) Contact: Cepsa,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Cepsa,  Renewable Energy,  Wind,  

Newfoundland Launches Energy Efficiency Loan Program (ind. Report)
Newfoundland Power, Newfoundland and Labrador Hydro
Date: 2017-11-03
In St. John, the government of Newfoundland-Labrador reports the launch of an Energy Efficiency Loan Program for homeowners using electric heat. The loans carry a rate of prime plus 1.5 pct -- currently 4.7 pct -- for loans up to $10,000.

The financing can be applied to energy-efficiency home upgrades including the purchase and installation of heat pumps, basement and attic insulation, and home energy assessments.

$4 million has been earmarked for the program program — $1 million to begin the program this year, and a further $1.5 million in each of 2018-19 and 2019-20. The loans can be repaid monthly through the homeowner's power bill over a five-year period.

The program is fully funded by the provincial government and will be delivered in partnership with takeCHARGE -- an energy-efficiency initiative of Newfoundland Power and Newfoundland and Labrador Hydro. (Source: Telegram, 30 Oct., 2017) Contact: Newfoundland Power,; Newfoundland and Labrador Hydro,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Energy Efficiency,  Energy Efficiency Funding,  

County Energy Efficiency Project Delivers Savings (Ind. Report)

Date: 2017-11-03
In the Bluegrass State, Boyle County reports that after one year of operation under an energy-efficiency program, the costs to operate several county facilities fell by an estimated $84,093 over a baseline cost $246,428.

Boyle County contracted with Perfection Group in early 2015 for a guaranteed-savings energy-efficiency project. Boyle borrowed $2.9 million in bonds to finance the project which replaced aging heating and air-conditioning systems; lights; windows; and other equipment with modern, energy-efficient units. Savings from the upgrades are supposed to be used to pay off the debt. (Source: Boyle County, Advocate-Messanger, 30 Oct., 2017)

More Low-Carbon Energy News Energy Efficiency,  

Microalgae Jet Biofuel Production Studied in Thailand (Int'l, R&D)
Date: 2017-11-03
Tokyo-headquartered industrial machinery maker IHI reports it will conduct large-scale verification experiments in central Thailand, on a process for producing jet fuel from cultured microalgae oils. The goal is to have a practical technology ready by 2020 for possible commercial scale production by 2030.

For the project, microalgae will be cultivated and harvested to study the overall process, establish methods of mass production, and work to lower production costs. The testing is a continuation and expansion of a project backed by Japan's New Energy Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) to produce algae-based biofuel. The initiative includes University of Kobe as part of an industry-government-academia effort. (Source: IHI, Nikkei Asian Review, 2 Nov., 2017) Contact: IHI, +81 (3) 6204-7800,; NEDO,

More Low-Carbon Energy News NEDO,  Microalgae,  IHI,  Algae,  Aviation Biofuel,  Jet Biofuel,  

NNPC Planning Nigerian Cassava Biofuel Plant (Int'l Report)
Date: 2017-11-03
In Abuja, the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) and the Ondo State Government are reporting a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to establish a 65,000 million lpy cassava biofuel plant, including a 40-MW power plant, in the community Okeluse, Ondo State. The project could also produce industrial starch which could be converted to animal feeds and other valuable byproducts. NNPC aims to commercialize the project's greenhouse gas emission reduction capability to win carbon credits for the nation from the international community. (Source: Nigerian National Petroleum Corp., 2 Nov.,2017) Contact: Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Cassava Biofuel,  Biofuel,  

Innergex Acquiring Alterra Power Corp. for $1.1Bn Cdn (M&A)
Innergex ,Alterra
Date: 2017-11-03
Longueuil, Quebec-headquartered wind energy developer Innergex Renewable Energy Inc. reports its will acquire Canadian developer Alterra Power Corp. of Vancouver in a deal worth C$1.1 billion ($857 million). Innergex owns just over 1GW of installed capacity, spread across 52 operational power plants -- mostly hydroelectric and wind projects. The acquisition will expand Innergex' renewables portfolio beyond its traditional markets in France, the US and Canada and increases its capacity by 40 pct or more, the company said.

Alterra owns 364MW of operational projects totaling 825MW — including half of the 204MW Shannon wind farm in Texas, 26 pct of the 144MW Dokie 1 site in British Columbia, Canada, and 100 pct of the 350MW Foard City site, which is said to be at an "advanced stage". The company also holds a majority stake in the 200MW Flat Top project in Texas. The developer also has interests in hydro projects in Canada and Iceland, solar projects in the US and Icelandic geothermal projects Following the transaction, Innergex will have an overall net power generation capacity of over 1.6GW, and aims to have a net installed capacity of more than 2GW by 2020.

The transaction is subject to Alterra's shareholders approval and "other customary closing conditions." (Source: Innergex, Alterra, Windpower, Others, 31 Oct., 2017) Contact: Innergex, Michel Letellier, Pres., CEO, (450) 928-2556,,; Alterra Power Corp., Jon Schintler, VP Project Finance, Peter Lekich, Corporate Communications, (604) 235.6719,,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Innergex,  Alterra,  Renewable Energy,  Wind,  

Mosaic Closes $307.5Mn Solar Loan Securitization (Ind. Report)
Date: 2017-11-03
Oakland, California-headquartered Mosaic, the leading U.S. provider of solar loan financing solutions for homeowners, reports completion of its second term securitization of residential solar loans. The Mosaic Solar Loans 2017-2 transaction ("MSAIC 2017-2") is the largest solar loan securitization issued to date, with $307.5 million in bonds sold across four tranches. MSAIC 2017-2 generated over $1.7 billion in investor orders and was ultimately placed with 29 institutional investors based in the U.S. and Europe.

Mosaic makes financing solar energy systems accessible and affordable for homeowners by providing the simplest borrower experience in the industry. Mosaic has originated over $1.3 billion of loans to date. Customers are connected to top solar installers and can qualify instantly for no money down loans with fixed interest rates and multiple term options. (Source: Mosaic, PR, 30 Oct., 2017) Contact: Mosaic, Billy Parish, CEO, Leslie D. Van Every,,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Solar,  

Nicaragua Inks Paris Climate Agreement -- Syria, U.S, Lone Holdouts (Int'l. Report)
Paris Climate Agreement,
Date: 2017-11-03
On October 20, Nicaraguan officials said "even though it (the Paris Climate Agreement) is not an ideal treaty, it is the only instrument that currently allows for unity of intentions and efforts to reduce climate change impacts," then promptly put pen to paper and joined the almost universally accepted accord.

The country did not join with other countries supporting the agreement in 2015 because the government did not believe it went far enough to mitigate climate change.

Nicaragua is reportedly the fourth most vulnerable country to climate change in the world. Nicaragua is now the 169th country to sign the accord, leaving Syria and the U.S. under the Trunp administration as the only holdouts. (Source: El Espectador , 24 Oct., 2017)

More Low-Carbon Energy News Paris Climate Agreement,  Climate Change,  Carbon Emissions,  Climate Change,  

Jordan Drafts National Climate Change Adaptation Plan (Int'l)
Jordan,Climate Change
Date: 2017-11-03
In Amman, the Jordanian Director of the Climate Change Department at the Ministry of Environment report it is formulating its first climate change National Adaptation Plan (NAP).

The plan will highlight the need for enhanced mitigation and adaptation to climate change, and to support the implementation of the Paris Agreement under which Jordan pledged to cut its greenhouse gas emissions by 14 pct by 2030, and to double the proportion of renewable energy in its total energy mix by 2020.

Jordan's 2013-2020 Jordan Climate Change Policy suggests that the country will witness a 1 to 4 degree C increase in temperatures and a 15 to 60 pct decrease in precipitation. Both changes could have a devastating impact on the Kingdom's natural ecosystems, river basins, watersheds and biodiversity. (Source: Jordan Times, 30 Oct., 2017) Contact: Jordan Director of Climate Change , Ministry of Environment, +962 6 556 0113,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Climate Change,  Paris Climate Agreement,  Climate Change Adaptation,  

Waste Management Makes CDP Climate Change A List (Ind. Report)
Waste Management,CDP
Date: 2017-11-03
Houston-headquartered Waste Management has been recognized as a leader among companies from around the world by environmental not-for-profit CDP for the depth and quality of climate change data it discloses to investors and the global marketplace.

Waste Management's leadership status was announced on CDP's 2017 Climate A List of companies recognized for their efforts to combat climate change, cut emissions, mitigate climate risks and develop the low-carbon economy. (Source: Waste Management, PR, 31 Oct., 2017) Contact: Waste Management, Jim Fish, Pres, Analysts Ed Egl, (713) 265-1656,,,; CDP,(212) 378 2086,,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Waste Management,  CDP,  

Alaskan Team to Make Climate Change Recommendations (Ind. Report)
Climate Change, Alaska
Date: 2017-11-03
In Juneau, Alaskan Gov. Bill Walker is creating a special team to recommend ways to address climate change mitigation, adaptation, research and response. The committee will include up to 15 public members from groups with a stake in the issue, representatives from the private sector, indigenous organizations and local governments, universities and state agencies.

Funding for the committee's recommendations has not yet been earmarked. (Source: SF Gate, Beaumont Enterprise, Others, 31 Oct., 2017) Contact: Alaskan Gov. Bill Walker,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Climate Change,  Climate Change Mitigation,  Climate Change Adaptation,  

Bahamas Faces $900m Climate Change Mitigation Bill (Int'l)
Date: 2017-11-03
In Nassau, the Bahamian Government is estimating that due to its "accelerated vulnerability" to natural disasters it would require $900 million to mitigate climate change under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The government's estimate is based upon the Inter-American Development Bank's (IDB) Climate-Resilient Coastal Management and Infrastructure Report on a $35 million project designed to develop a system for managing, and building resilience to, threats to the Bahamas coastline which is crucial to tourism and the overall economy. The Government of the Bahamas estimated the cost of implementing mitigation actions related to the Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) to the UNFCCC to be over $900 million through 2030. (Source: IDB, Tribune 242, 31 Oct., 2017)Contact: UNFCCC,; Inter-American Development Bank,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Climate Change,  UNFCCC,  IDB,  

GSA Seeks Smart Bldg. Energy Efficiency Solutions (Ind. Report)
General Services Administration
Date: 2017-11-03

WegoWise Wins Energy Benchmarking Training Grant (Ind. Report)
Date: 2017-11-03
Boston-based building analytics, energy and water benchmarking specialist WegoWise is reporting receipt of $58,303 in Workforce Training Fund matching funds Grants from the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Executive Office of Labor and Workforce Development. The funds will provide customized training to 32 WegoWise team members and create 10 additional positions by 2019.

WegoWise is focused on improving the operational and sustainability performance of multifamily and commercial real estate. The company's software-as-a-service (SaaS) platform is used to benchmark utility and water usage in more than 58,000 buildings, comprising 2.4 million square-feet of multifamily housing in the United States. (Source: WegoWise, PR, GlobeNewsWire, 31 Oct., 2017). Contact: WegoWise, Laila Partridge, Pres., CEO, (617) 367-7346,;

More Low-Carbon Energy News WegoWise,  Energy Efficiency,  Energy Benchmarking,  

Tozour Energy Backs Philly 2030 District nitiative (Ind. Report)
2030 Initiative
Date: 2017-11-03
In the Keystone State, King of Prussia-based Tozour Energy Systems reports it supports the Delaware Valley Green Building Council (DVGBC), Philadelphia Office of Sustainability and the Philadelphia Energy Authority in the launch of the Philadelphia 2030 District. The 2030 program brings together utility and energy service companies, community organizations, and property owners and managers in a pledge to significantly cut energy and water use and transportation emissions by the year 2030. The 2030 initiative will also serve as a catalyst to implement best practices for building sustainability. The DVGBC is leading the initiative.

Currently, Philadelphia's building sector produces 60 pct of the city's carbon emissions while wasting 30 pct of its energy.

With this launch, Philadelphia will join more than 17 cities that are part of the 2030 District; Source: Tozour Energy, 2030 Initiative, Inquirer, Nov., 2017) Contact: Philadelphia 2030 District, Tozour Energy Systems, Kevin Duffy, Pres., (610) 962-1600,

More Low-Carbon Energy News 2030 Initiative,  Energy Efficiency,  

VTT to Develop New Indian Enzymes for Biorefineries (Ind. Report)
Date: 2017-11-03
Micro-organisms found in the wildfire-prone rainforests of India are an exciting prospect for biochemical production, as they are accustomed to the challenging conditions following a forest fire. The enzymes they produce are likely to also have a higher-than-normal resistance to the substances released from biomass in high-temperature industrial processes. An EU and nationally funded project led by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, called IndZyme, is looking to study whether they are capable of breaking down agricultural waste better than commercial enzymes.

The Indian research partner in IndZyme, VINSTROM, has collected microbial cultures from wildfire-prone areas of Indian rainforests and proven that they have a higher-than-normal resistance to inhibitor chemicals. During the project, these microbial cultures will be screened for new, more inhibitor-resistant cellulase enzymes as well as LPMO enzymes, whose activity may even be boosted by inhibitor chemicals. The next step will be studying the efficiency of these new enzymes in breaking down agricultural waste, such as straw, into fermentable sugars. The project will involve developing new enzyme screening methods and producing new information about compounds that inhibit or promote enzyme activity.

Lignocellulosic agricultural waste is among the most common renewable biomass resources. In Europe, wheat straw is one of the most abundant agricultural waste products. India has ample stocks of bagasse, the fibrous matter that remains after sugar cane stalks are crushed to produce sugar, but it is currently disposed of by incineration, causing considerable local emissions.

The three-year IndZyme project consortium consists of VTT (Finland), VINSTROM (India), RWTH (Germany) and the University of Tartu (Estonia). VINSTROM will screen the microbial cultures, after which VTT will analyse them for the enzymes they produce. RWTH will fraction the inhibitor compounds generated by biomass processing, after which VTT and the University of Tartu will characterise the enzymes and study their interactions with inhibitors. The project The VTT coordinated project has a total budget of approximately €1 million. VTT and the Academy of Finland have together allocated €400,000 towards the project . (Source: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, PR, 2 Nov., 2017) Contact: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Kristiina Kruus, Research Prof., +358-50-520-2471,,

More Low-Carbon Energy News VTT news,  Enzymes news,  

Active Energy Raises £1.75Mn for CoalSwitch Biomass Fuel Rollout (Ind. Report)
Active Energy
Date: 2017-11-01
Following on our Sept. 25th coverage, UK-based renewable energy specialist Active Energy Group PLC reports it has raised £1.75 million as it looks to accelerate the international commercial roll out of its CoalSwitch biomass fuel.

CoalSwitch recently received a major leg-up through a deal with California-based renewable energy group Lumino Capital to build eight plants across Asia. Advanced Biomass Solutions (ABS), AEG's biomass affiliate, will construct and run the plants while Lumino will source the biomass feedstock as well as providing finance. Together, the new plants will be a standalone entity with total production 1.5 million tpy of the CoalSwitch product. Construction of the first of the 6 plants is slated for early 2018. (Source: Active Energy Group, Proactive Investors, 1 Nov., 2017) Contact: Active Energy Group PLC, Richard Spinks, CEO, +44 (0)20 3021 1500,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Active Energy,  CoalSwitch,  Woody Biomass Fuel,  

Denmark, US Ink Offshore Wind Cooperation Agreement (Ind. Report)
Offshore Wind
Date: 2017-11-01
In Washington, Danish Energy and Climate Minister, Lars Christian Lilleholt recently met with US Secretary of the Interior Ryan Zinke to formalize a new wind energy cooperation agreement between the two countries. The co-operation will initially revolve around the exchange of experience and knowledge regarding U.S. elopement and expansion of its offshore wind potential.

In 2015, 42 pct of Denmark's total electric power demand was met by wind energy. The country has an overall wind energy capacity of 1.3 GW. The US DOE estimates that 35 pct of US electric power will be generated by wind energy by 2050, with 20 pct of the total from offshore wind energy at an investment cost of approximately $400 billion. (Source: CPH Post Online, Various Media, 30 Oct., 2017) Contact: Denmark Energy and Climate Minister, Lars Christian Lilleholt,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Denmark Offshore Wind,  Wind,  Offshore Wind,  

Basic Energy Acquring SE Asian Solar Projects (Int'l. M&A)
Basic Energy Corp
Date: 2017-11-01
In the Philippines, Basic Energy Corp. reports it is acquiring equity interests in four renewable energy projects in Southeastern Asia. Of the four projects, two are located in Japan, one in Thailand and another in Myanmar, total approx. 260 MW generating capacity.

The company behind all four projects is mainly Vintage Engineering PCL (VTE), which is listed on the Stock Exchange of Thailand.

Basic Energy is doing due diligence on two wholly owned VTE subsidiaries -- Vintage EPC Co. Ltd. and Vintage International Construction Co. -- as well as their engineering, procurement and construction contract on the $270 million, 220-MW solar power plant project in Minbu, Myanmar. Basic Energy also expects to conclude due diligence on a 14-MW solar power plant in Japan. For this, the company planned to secure a 10-pct equity in the Hong Kong-based project proponent Solmax Power Ltd. Basic Energy is also looking at a 10-pct equity investment in a 25-MW biomass power plant project in Japan, where VHJ is a major shareholder. Basic Energy is also considering a 49-pct equity investment in VTE subsidiary VO Net Biodiesel Asia Co. Limited, which operates a 1.2-MW solar power plant in Kalisin, Thailand. (Source: Basic Energy Corp., Business Inquirer, 28 Oct., 2017) Contact: Basic Energy Corp., +63 (02) 817 8596 98 , +63 02 817 0191,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Basic Energy Corp.,  Biodiesel,  

Atmospheric CO2 Levels Hit 800,000 Year High (Ind. Report)
World Meteorological Organization
Date: 2017-11-01
The Geneva, Switzerland-headquartered World Meteorological Organization (WMO)is reporting that atmospheric concentrations of the long lasting greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2), and the shorter-lived by far more potent methane have persisted at levels above 400 parts per million for the first time in recorded history and its highest level in 800,000 years.

In addition to the ignition of fossil fuels, an extremely powerful El Nino event -- a natural phenomenon that is exacerbated by man-made climate change -- is contributing to the high greenhouse gas levels. El Nino restricts the ability of plants to absorb CO2 whenever it causes extensive droughts. Normally, much of this excess carbon would be absorbed by the oceans -- the planet's major carbon sink.

Measurements taken in 51 different countries revealed that 2016's increased CO2 levels was 50 pct higher than the average of the past 10 years. "The rate of increase of atmospheric CO2 over the past 70 years is nearly 100 times larger than that at the end of the last ice age," the report claims. (Source: World Meteorological Organization, BBC News, Various Others, 31 Oct., 2017) Contact: World Meteorological Organization,

More Low-Carbon Energy News ,  CO2,  Methane,  GHGs,  Climate Change,  Carbon Emissions,  CO2,  Global Warming,  

Clariant Announces Romanian Cellulosic Ethanol Plant Plans (Int'l)
Date: 2017-11-01
Swiss specialty chemical developer Clariant reports it will invest in a new commercial-scale cellulosic ethanol from agricultural residues using its Sunliquid® technology.

The new 50,000 tpy plant will be constructed in southwestern Romania. technology at commercial scale thus supporting Clariant's Sunliquid® licensing business strategy. To further focus on the commercialization of bio-ethanol, licenses and enzymes, the company has established a new Business Line Biofuels & Derivatives, as part of the Business Area Catalysis. The new plant is expected to break ground in 2018 for startup and production in 2020when it will process approximately 250.000 tpy of locally sourced wheat straw and other cereal straw into fuel.

Clariant's Sunliquid® technology offers a completely integrated process using already established process technology. In order to achieve a strong commercial performance, feedstock production is integrated into the technology, alongside process specific enzymes and simultaneous C5 and C6 fermentation. (Source: Clariant, NewsWire, Nasdaq, 31 Oct., 2017) Contact: Clariant, Markus Rarbach, Head of Start-up Business Biofuels & Derivatives, Hariolf Kottmann, CEO, +41 61 469 5111, Anja Pomrehn, Inv. Relations, +41 61 469 67 45,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Clariant,  Cellulosic Ethanol,  Biofuel,  

MidAmerican Energy Reports Wind XI Project Progress (Ind. Report)
MidAmerican Energy
Date: 2017-11-01
In the Hawkeye State, Des Headquartered MidAmerican Energy Company reports construction is underway on the North English wind farm, with completion scheduled for December 2018. The wind farm will share an operations and maintenance building in Montezuma with the Prairie wind farm, currently under construction in neighboring Mahaska County. The company also plans to construct a third new wind farm in Poweshiek County, Iowa.

The North English wind farm, which is part of MidAmerican Energy's Wind XI project, will incorporate as many as 170 new wind turbines with a combined capacity of 340 MW. Construction of other Wind XI projects is expected to get underway in 2018 and 2019 at as yet unidentified sites.

Altogether, the $3.6 billion Wind XI project will consist of up to 1,000 wind turbines with 2,000 MW capacity when complete in December 2019. (Source: MidAmerican Energy, Toledo Chronicle, 30 Oct., 2017)Contact: MidAmerican Energy , Bill Fehrman, Pres., CEO, Mike Gehringer, VP Renewable Energy, (888) 427-5632,

More Low-Carbon Energy News MidAmerican Energy,  Wind,  

BMW Commissions Used Battery Energy Storage Farm Leipzig (Int'l)
Date: 2017-11-01
The BMW Group is reporting the commissioning of its "second-life" BMW 13 Battery Storage Farm Leipzig. The facility will incorporate as many as 700 high-capacity, used battery packs from BMW i3s electric vehicles. The facility is presently using about 500 500 BMW i3 battery packs due to availability since the The BMW 13 EV was launched 4 years ago. (Source: BMW BLOG, Various Media, 30 Oct., 2017)

More Low-Carbon Energy News Battery,  Energy Storage,  

Vattenfall Investing $233Mn in Dutch Wind Farm Refit (Int'l)
Date: 2017-11-01
Swedish wind energy giant Vattenfall reports it will invest more than €200 million ($233m) in the re-powering and expansion of the 295 MW Wieringermeer wind farm 60 km north of Amsterdam.

According to Vattenfall, older and inefficient turbines will be replaced with new technology and six new turbines will be added, bringing the central wind farm's capacity to 180 MW, by 2019. Vattenfall has also acquired the adjacent 115 MW Wieringermeer extension.

The company's Dutch subsidiary Nuon will carry out the work and will operate the revamped plant. ECN will still own 17 of the turbines after the modernization and one turbine will be made available to supply power to local residents, Vattenfall said. (Source: Vattenfall, PEI, 30 Oct., 2017)Contact: Vattenfall , Gunnar Groebler, +46 8 739 5000,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Vattenfall,  Wind,  Nuon,  

Akuo Completes 150-MW Texas Wind Farm Construction (Ind. Report)
Akuo Energy
Date: 2017-11-01
French renewable power producer Akuo Energy reports construction has been completed on the 150-MW Rocksprings wind farm in Val Verde County, Texas. The wind farm incorporates 53, 2.3-MW wind turbines and 16 units of 1.72-MW machines supplied by General Electric. GE Energy Financial Services provided tax equity and UK-based investor John Laing Group plc injected $85 million cash equity.

The wind park has two separate power purchase agreements (PPAs) in place -- An international firm will buy 100 MW of the generated electricity for 15 years, while US retail giant Walmart Stores Inc (will purchase the other 50 MW under a 12-year deal. (Source: Akuo Energy, Renewables Now, Others, 30 Oct., 2017) Contact: Akuo Energy, +33 1 47 66 09 90,,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Akuo Energy,  Wind,  

World's First Floating Offshore Wind Farm Begins Operations (Int'l)
Date: 2017-11-01
Norwegian state-owned Statoil in partnership with Masdar, reports the inauguration of the world’'s first floating offshore wind farm, Hywind Scotland, 15 miles off the coast of Peterhead, Aberdeenshire, Scotland. The 30-MW pilot Hywind Scotland will generate sufficient electric power for about 20,000 U.K. households.

The project utilizes 5 Siemens turbines measuring 584 feet high and 505 feet in diameter. The facility's onshore operations and maintenance base is in Peterhead, while the operations center is in Great Yarmouth. Batwind, a 1-MW lithium battery storage system for offshore wind energywill be installed to mitigate intermittency and optimize output. (Source: Statoil, Commercial Property Exec., 30 Oct., 2017)

More Low-Carbon Energy News Statoil,  Masdar,  Wind,  Offshore Wind,  Floating Wind,  

Beijing Prepares for COP23 Climate Change Leadership (Int'l)
COP23,Climate Change
Date: 2017-11-01
Despite Washington's previous role in combating climate change, then Trump's withdrawal from the Paris Climate Agreement, China appears to be positioning itself to take a lead role at next week's COP23 climate talks in Bonn, according to the Financial Post. It is widely agreed that Trump's withdrawal from the Paris Agreement, had an obvious negative impact on the international community's confidence in the U.S.' commitment to fight climate change and its leadership, a role which Beijing is ready to exploit.

At the up coming COP23 meet in Bonn, China is expected to unveil a planned national carbon trading scheme launch in 2018. The Chinese plan, which is expected to be modeled after the European Union's carbon marketplace, still has "problems" that need to be fixed before the "very complex" scheme can be launched nationwide, according to Chinese climate policy makers in Beijing. (Source: Xinhua, Financial Times, 31 Oct., 2017)

More Low-Carbon Energy News Paris Climate Agreement,  Climate Change,  COP23,  Paris Climate Agreement,  

NBI Unveils Multifamily Energy Guide -- Attached (Ind. Report)
New Buildings Institute
Date: 2017-11-01
According to a new report from the New Buildings Institute (NBI), multifamily buildings offer a largely untapped opportunity for improving energy efficiency but the sector is hard to penetrate due to complexities in market structure and split incentives.

In an effort to overcome these barriers, NBI has developed a new construction standard that delivers savings of 15 pct to 25 pct irregardless of the project being subject to the residential or commercial versions of energy code.

Access the NBI Multifamily Guide HERE. (Source: New Buildings Institute, 30 Oct., 2017) Contact: New Buildings Institute,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Energy Efficiency,  

Energi Mine Platform Rewards Energy Conservation (Ind. Report)
Energi Mine
Date: 2017-11-01
In the UK, Manchester-headquartered Energi Mine is reporting the launch of its blockchain-based platform that aims to decentralize the near $2 trillion global energy market by incentivising energy conservation.

According to Energi Mine, the current electricity market approach encourages energy companies to sell as much energy as they can at the highest price possible. The newly launched platform encourages reduced energy consumption by issuing ETK tokens to reward energy efficient behaviour, such as taking public transportation, energy-efficient appliances and other initiatives. The ETK tokens can be redeemed on the Energi Mine platform to pay for energy bills, electric vehicle recharging, exchanged for fiat currency or traded directly with transport authorities. With Energi Mine's platform, excess energy from a consumer can be sold to a different consumer at transparent market prices, rather than sold to a power supplier at a rate determined by the power supplier. (Source: Energi Mine, CoinJournal, 30 Oct., 2017) Contact: Energi Mine, +44 (0) 61791 0640,,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Energi Mine ,  Energy Efficiency,  Energy Conservation,  Energy Management,  

Prior Lake Lauded for Energy Benchmarking, Efficiency (Ind. Report)
Prior Lake
Date: 2017-11-01
In Minnesota, the city of Prior Lake reports it has been awarded the Wisconsin Center for Sustainable Building Research and the Departments of Administration and Commerce Buildings, Benchmarks and Beyond (B3) Best of B3 Benchmarking Award for projects designed to track energy consumption and increasing energy efficiency.

The city of approx. 25,000 residents tracks energy use in seven buildings totaling 160,000 square feet. The city is also 8 pct lower on energy-use intensity than the benchmark, for a 19 pct decrease from 2016. (Source: City of Prior Lake, Prior Lake American, 30 Oct., 2017) Contact: City of Prior Lake,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Energy Efficiency,  Energy Benchmarking,  

Biorefining Potential for Scotland -- Report Attached (Int'l)
Zero Waste Scotland
Date: 2017-11-01
In Edinburgh, the Scottish government backed Zero Waste Scotland organization has released its Biorefining Potential for Scotland report which encourages making better use of bio-based waste for fuels and energy production and the crucial role bio-wastes can play in a modern circular economy.

According to the report, Scotland produces 27 million tpy of bio-based materials including everything from coffee grounds, forestry waste, macro algae, brewery wastes and others.

Download the full Biorefining Potential for Scotland Report HERE. (Source: Zero Waste Scotland, Sept., 2017) Contact: Zero Waste Scotland, Lain Gulland, CEO,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Bio-waste,  Biofuel,  Bioenergy,  

"Gutter Oil" Biodiesel Available to Shanghai Motorists (Int'l)
Date: 2017-11-01
In Shanghai, Sinopec gas stations are now offering biodiesel rpoduced for "gutter oil" -- restaurant grease trap and used cooking oil -- at 5.72 yuan ($0.86 U.S.) per liter compared with 6.02 yuan for standard diesel.

Shanghai recovers an average 150 tpd of gutter oil. The cost to recover gutter oil is about 3,600 yuan per tonne ($542 U.S.) while the processing cost is 2,000 yuan per tonne. (Source: Sinopec, Xinhua, 31 Oct., 2017)Contact: Sinopec,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Sinopec,  China Biodiesel,  Biodiesel,  Gutter Oil,  

Infomart Data Center Wins USGBC LEED Platinum (Ind. Report)
USGBC,Infomart Data Center
Date: 2017-11-01
Infomart Data Centers, a national wholesale data center provider, reports its Portland, Oregon data center has achieved U.S. Green Building Council LEED Platinum® certification, the highest rating offered by the USGBC. The facility is the first data center in the state to win LEED certification.

Infomart Portland achieved LEED Platinum certification for implementing practical and measurable strategies and solutions aimed at achieving high performance in: sustainable site development, water savings, energy efficiency, materials selection and indoor environmental quality. The facility uses Direct Access rights to source hydro-electric power from the Bonneville Power Administration and has cut its CO2 emissions by 96 pct when compared to the national utility average. Infomart Portland claims a 99 pct efficient Uninterrupted Power Supply (UPS), a Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE) of 1.16 in full economization mode, 100 pct aisle containment, and natural cooling methods to run the facility at least 70 pct of the year. (Source: Infomat Data Centers, 30 Oct., 2017) Contact: Informat Data Centers,; USGBC Mahesh Ramanujam, President and CEO, (202) 552-1500,

More Low-Carbon Energy News USGBC,  LEED Certification,  Energy Efficiency,  

Newfoundland-Labrador Plans 2018 Carbon Tax Launch (Ind. Report)
Newfoundland and Labrador Premier Dwight Ball
Date: 2017-11-01
In St.John's, Newfoundland and Labrador Premier Dwight Ball (Liberal) reports his government will unveil a "made-in-Newfoundland and Labrador" carbon pricing plan that he expects the federal government in Ottawa to accept.

Under Liberal Prime Minister Justin Trudeau's mandate, a federal carbon tax will apply to provinces that do not have a provincial carbon pollution pricing system in place by 2018. Individual provinces can choose either a direct-pricing system or a cap-and-trade system. Under a direct-pricing system, the carbon price would be mandated to start at a minimum of $10 per tonne in 2018 and rise by $10 per year to $50 per tonne in 2022. Under a cap-and-trade system, provinces would need to have a 2030 emissions reduction target equal to or greater than the fed's 30 pct reduction target.

As previously reported, the Manitoba government last week released its "Made-in-Manitoba Climate and Green Plan" which calls for a starting price of $25 per tonne in 2018 -- half the 2022 amount mandated by the federal government. The Manitoba tax would remain stable through to 2022. (Source: Office of Newfoundland and Labrador Premier Dwight Ball, The Telegram, 30 Oct., 2017) Contact: Office of Newfoundland and Labrador Premier Dwight Ball, (709) 729-3570,,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Carbon Tax,  Canada Carbon Tax,  

Asia Development Cap. Cancels Biomass Fuel Firm Acquisition (M&A)
Asia Development Capital
Date: 2017-11-01
In Tokyo, Asia Development Capital Co Ltd , formerly known as Asia Alliance Holdings Co., Ltd., reports it is canceling its previously reported acquisition of a stake in Tokyo-based biomass fuel firm via unit NIL. NIL will set up a 97 pct owned biomass fuel JV in Tokyo capitalized at ¥80 million.

Asia Development Capital Co. Ltd. principally invests in in corporate revitalization businesses and real estate in Japan, China and other Asian countries. (Source; Asia Development Capital, Reuters, 31 Oct., 2017) Contact: Asia Development Capital, +81 355616040, Fax +81 354475374,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Biomass,  

Battelle Completes AEP CCS Project in West Va. (Ind. Report)
Battelle, AEP
Date: 2017-11-01
In the Buckeye State, the Columbus-based Battelle Memorial Institute -- a private nonprofit applied science and technology development company -- is reporting the conclusion of one of the first tests for geologic storage of carbon dioxide at a commercial, coal-fired power plant at the American Electric Power (AEP) Mountaineer Plant in New Haven, West Virginia.

The carbon capture and storage (CCS) research project, which began in 2002, was supported by the United States DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Based on the positive findings from the exploratory well drilling and seismic survey, AEP decided in 2007 to proceed with a 20 MW pilot test facility, with on-site CO2 capture, compression, transport, and injection. Battelle was then hired by AEP to continue providing geologic CCS expertise followed by a post-injection monitoring and site closeout phase ending in 2017.

It was the first CCS project at a working coal-fired power plant, it was funded primarily by private sources and helped establish the technical viability of CCS to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from coal-fired power plants, and to store carbon dioxide in geologic layers with limited prior data.

The project demonstrated the full life-cycle, from inception, characterization well-drilling to find suitable storage zones, reservoir analysis, integration with pilot-scale system for a CO2 supply, injection, storage assessment, monitoring and final close-out in 2017. (Source: Battelle, PR. 28 Oct., 2017) Contact: Battelle, Katy Delaney, (614) 424-7208,,; AEP, Matt Usher, Director of New Technology Development & Policy Support, (800) 672-2231,; Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership,

More Low-Carbon Energy News CCS,  CO2,  Battelle,  AEP,  

Mexican Oil Giant Commits to CO2 Emissions Cuts by 2021 (Int'l)
Date: 2017-11-01
In Mexico City, Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), the state-owned oil company reports it intends to cut its carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 25 pct by 2021, according to a company release.

PEMEX' 2017-2021 Business Plan includes curbs on greenhouse gases, increasing water recycling by 60 pct to save water at its refineries, and promoting an ecological corridor in the oil rich Gulf state of Veracruz, the company said.

Pemex had a total asset worth of $415.75 billion, and was the world's second largest non-publicly listed company by total market value in 2006 and Latin America's second largest enterprise by annual revenue as of 2009, surpassed only by the Brazilian National Oil Company, Petrobras. With the value of its publicly listed shares totaling $202 billion in 2010, representing approximately one quarter of the company's total net worth. The company has a total revenue of $117.5 billion in revenue in 2014. (Source: PEMEX, PR, CEO, Xinhua, 29 Oct., 2017) Contact: PEMEX, Jose Antonio Gonzalez Anaya, CEO,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Pemex,  CO2 Emissions,  Climate Change,  

Danish Coal to Woody Biomass Power Conversion Underway (Int'l)
DONG Energy,Orsted
Date: 2017-11-01
Orsted , formerly known as DONG Energy, reports the $190 million conversion of the coal-fired Avedore Power Station in Denmark to burn wood biomass pellets as fuel is underway. Work includes construction of a biomass-fired plant in new buildings, conveyors and wood chip-pellet storage facilities.

The new unit will be connected to the existing district heating and process steam networks and the electricity grid. The conversion project is scheduled to be completed by the end of 2019. The company plans to phase out all of its coal powered operations by 2023, it said. (Source: DONG Energy, CTBR, Nov., 2017)Contact: DONG Energy, Henrik Poulson, CEO, Thomas Dalsgaard, Bioenergy & Thermal Power VP, +45 99 55 11 11,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Orsted,  DONG Energy,  Biomass,  Woody Biomass,  

EDF says Methane Emissions Must be Slashed for Future of Climate Industry (Opinions, Editorials & Asides)
Environmental Defense Fund,International Energy Agency
Date: 2017-10-30
According to the International Energy Agency's (IEA) 2017 World Energy Outlook evaluating the role of natural gas in a low-carbon economy, globally, the oil and gas industry could reduce up to 75 pct of its current methane emissions. Methane, the main constituent in natural gas, is also a powerful climate pollutant that has increasingly alarmed scientists. IEA says the environmental credentials of natural gas are at risk absent action by the industry to radically reduce oil and gas methane emissions. Methane emissions from human activities account for about 25 pct of the warming our planet is experiencing today, according to the IEA.

The IEA says that while some oil and gas companies are beginning to tackle methane in earnest, others downplay or deny the problem while others question the oil and gas industry's role in a low-carbon future.(Source: Environmental Defense Fund, PR, Facebook, Oct. 26, 2017) Contact: Environmental Defense Fund, Fred Krupp, Pres.; IEA, Fatih Birol, Exec. Dir., +33 1 40 57 65 00,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Environmental Defense Fund,  International Energy Agency,  Methane,  Methane Emissions,  ,  

BioResouce Dev. Inks Nebraska Landfill Gas Deal (Ind. Report)
Black Hills Energy,BioResource Development
Date: 2017-10-30
In Nebraska, Omaha-headquartered BioResource Development LLC reports it has inked a deal under which it will be harvesting landfill methane gases emitted by the 160-acre Sarpy County Landfill northwest of Springfield. The company will clean the gases and pump the resulting renewable natural gas into Black Hills Energy's pipeline distribution network. The methane is presently being flared off.

BioResource Development is installing new wells in addition to those already installed by the county, to which it will apply a vacuum that allows for the direct collection of waste gases. Those gases will then be processed to strip out moisture, carbon dioxide and other ambient gases like nitrogen and oxygen. That leaves methane, the primary hydrocarbon that's piped through natural gas pipelines and into homes and businesses. According to the EPA, there are currently 634 landfill gas projects in the U.S. (Source: BioResource Development LLC, Omaha World Herald, 27 Oct., 2017) Black Hills Energy,; BioResource Development LLC, Greg MacLean, Pres., (402) 682-3680,,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Black Hills Energy,  Methane,  Landfill Gas,  BioResource Development,  

Mortenson Awarded Xcel Wind Farm Contracts (Ind. Report)
Xcel Energy,Mortenson Construction
Date: 2017-10-30
Minneapolis-headquartered Xcel Energy is reporting the appointment of Mortenson Construction to construct two new wind farms in southwest Minnesota, as part of the utility's larger $2 billion 1,500-mw investment in new wind generation.

When fully operational, the "Blazing Star 1" and "Blazing Star 2" wind farms will incorportae 200 wind turbines to generate a combined power capacity of 400 MW. (Source: Xcel Energy, Finance & Commerce, October 24, 2017) Contact: Xcel Energy,; Mortenson Construction,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Xcel Energy,  Wind,  Mortenson Construction,  

Statoil Touting Long Island EMPIRE WIND Project (Ind. Report)
Date: 2017-10-30
Statoil reports it has tagged its offshore wind farm site 14-30 miles southeast of Long Island as EMPIRE WIND. When fully operational, the 1-GW site could generate sufficient electric power for as many as one million area homes.

According to Statoil, it invested $42.5 million to obtain the lease for the EMPIRE WIND site which will be constructed by private investors at an approximate cost of $3 billion. The offshore wind project is still in the early planning stage with site assessment and characterization studies and surveys expected to get underway in spring 2018. The research and permitting phase is expected to last four-to-five years. Early estimates suggest that first power could be generated by the mid-2020s. (Source: Statoil, Maritime Exec., 24 Nov., 2017) Contact: Statoil, Irene Rummelhoff, Exec VP New Energy Ventures, Stephen Bull, Snr, VP, Offshore Wind, +47 51 99 00 00,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Statoil,  Offshore Wind,  

Hawaiian PUC Approves Solar Power Feed-In Programs (Ind. Report)
Hawaii PUC
Date: 2017-10-30
In the Aloha State, the PUC reports it has approved two new rooftop solar programs that will allow customers to once again feed power to the grid and receive credits. The programs allow the sale of rooftop solar power to Hawaiian Electric Cos. -- including Maui Electric -- grids during peak nighttime periods only and during daytime hours with a system that allows the utilities, to control the flow of PV power to the grid.

One of the difficulties utilities have had with past PV systems is that solar power flows at varying rates based on the sun into the grid unchecked, forcing the utility to curtail or increase generation of power to balance the system. Previously , residential PV systems owners could only set up battery storage systems while still receiving power from the utility. This new PUC ruling allows existing Net Metering customers to add "nonexport" systems, such as batteries, while retaining their favorable status and authorized activation of new "advanced inverter" functions in PV and storage systems that support the grid during grid disturbances. (Source: Hawaii PUC, Maui News, 25 Oct., 2017) Contact: Hawaii PUC,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Hawaii PUC,  Solar,  Solar Feed-in Tariff,  

B.C. Appoints Climate Change Advisory Council (Ind. Report)
British Columbia
Date: 2017-10-30
In Victoria, the British Columbia Environment Ministry reports the appointed of a team of environmental and industry advisers to help the government set and meet legislated pollution reduction targets and introduce climate legislation to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 40 pct below 2007 levels over the next 13 years. The legislation will also include targets to cut building emissions by 50 pct and 30 pct from industry and transportation.

The province is set to increase its carbon tax by $5 per tonne next April, raising the tax to $35 per tonne. (Source: British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Variuos Media, Canadian Press, 23 Oct., 2017) Contact: British Columbia Ministry of Environment, (250) 387-6121,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Climate Change,  Carbon Emissions,  GHG Emissions,  

Vestas Snares First US V136-3.45 MW Turbines Order (Ind. Report)
Date: 2017-10-30
Wind turbine giant Vestas is reporting receipt of a firm and unconditional U.S. order for 47 of its V136-3.45 MW turbines including both the 2 and 4-MW platforms which are well-suited for low and mid-velocity wind conditions.

The order includes turbine supply and commissioning as well as a multi-year Active Output Management 5000 (AOM5000) service agreement, Vestas' full-scope service package maximizing uptime and energy production.

Initial deliveries are slated to begin in Q3 of 2018, for commissioning in Q4. The project details and customer name have not been disclosed. (Source: Vestas, Windpower, Others, 24 Oct., 2017) Contact: Vestas, Chris Brown, Pres. Sales and Service U.S. and Canada, +45 97 30 00 00,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Vestas,  Wind Turbine,  Wind,  

Washington Skookumchuck Wind Project Advances (Ind. Report)
Skookumchuck Wind Energy Project LLC
Date: 2017-10-30
In Washington State, Lewis County Commissioners are reporting the designation of Thurston County as the lead SEPA agency for Skookumchuck Wind Energy Project's proposed 51-turbine, 176-MW wind project near Skookumchuck Lake.

The proposed project includes a 5-acre operations and maintenance yard, various access roads, and a 15-mile electrical transmission line to transport electricity to the existing Puget Sound Energy Tono sub-station would be located in Lewis County. Of the 51 turbines, eight would be located within Thurston County.

Construction is expected to begin before the year end for commissioning and operations prior to Dec. 31, 2018. (Source: Skookumchuck Wind Energy Project , Chronicle, 25 Oct., 2017) Contact: Skookumchuck Wind Energy Project LLC,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Wind,  

Vermont Tightens Wind Turbine Noise Standards (Ind. Reports)

Date: 2017-10-30
In Montpelier, Vermont Public Radio reports the Vermont Legislative Committee on Administrative Rules has approved a proposal for stricter noise limits for wind turbines. The ruling will keep nighttime sound levels to under than 30 decibels when measured inside a home.

Public health advocates say the new rule is not strict enough, while business and clean energy supporters say the limits will hinder future wind development. The Public Utility Commission, which tabled the proposal, say the 30 decibel standard will protect public health and will not completely rule out utility-scale wind energy. (Source: Vermont Public Radio, WRAL, 27 Oct., 2017)

More Low-Carbon Energy News Wind,  

Minneapolis Recognizes Energy Efficient Com. Bldg.s (Ind. Report)
Date: 2017-10-30
In Minneapolis, the Building Energy Challenge Awards notes that the city's commercial-industrial sector contributed almost half of the total citywide greenhouse gas emissions in 2015 with building energy use as the main source. An analysis released earlier this year of the energy use of 417 public and commercial buildings in Minneapolis revealed that those buildings have the combined potential to save $27 million in energy costs per year and avoid more than 120,000 metric tons of greenhouse gas emissions by increasing their energy efficiency to reduce consumption by 15 pct.

In 2013, Minneapolis adopted its Commercial Building Benchmarking and Transparency ordinance requiring large buildings to track and disclose their energy consumption. All buildings subject to the benchmarking ordinance may participate in the Building Energy Challenge and are eligible for milestone awards. Buildings can qualify as challenge leaders by publicly committing to a 15 percent greenhouse gas reduction. The Building Energy Challenge aligns with the city's Clean Energy Partnership in support of the Minneapolis Climate Action Plan. (Source: Minneapolis Clean Energy Partnership,, Oct 27, 2017 Contact: Minneapolis Clean Energy Partnership,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Energy Efficiency,  Energy Benchmarking,  

"ReEnergize Reno" Energy Efficiency Program Launched (Ind. Report)
DOE Better Buildings Challenge
Date: 2017-10-30
The City of Reno is reporting the launch of "ReEnergize Reno" aimed at improving commercial, industrial and multifamily building energy efficiency across the city by 20 pct by 2025. ReEnergize Reno is part of the U.S. DOE Better Buildings Challenge, which is designed to decrease energy and water waste in large buildings across the nation to reduce climate pollution. At least 45 other cities nationwide are participating in the Better Buildings Challenge.

ReEnergize Reno offers programs, technical assistance, education and resources and financial incentives like the Green Building Tax Incentive Program from the Nevada Governor's Office Of Energy which notes that 124 LEED certified buildings in the state are receiving energy efficiency tax abatments from the program. There are also 131 ENERGY STAR certified buildings with more than 19 million square feet in Nevada, 21 of which are located in the Reno-Sparks area. (Source: Northern Nevada Business Weekly, 27 Oct., 2017)Contact: US DOE Better Buildings Challenge,

More Low-Carbon Energy News DOE Better Buildings Challenge,  Building Energy Efficiency,  

Net-Zero Energy R&D Building Opens in Jamaica (Ind. Report)
University of the West Indies
Date: 2017-10-30
In Jamaica, University of the West Indies (UWI) is reporting the opening of the Jamaica's and the Caribbean region's first net zero energy building in Kingston, Jamica.

The 2,300-square-foot structure is designed as a model to encourage construction of sustainable and energy-efficient buildings throughout the region. The building will host the Centre for Advanced Research in Renewable Energy (CARRE) to promote energy efficiency, solar, wind and biomass energy R&D. The building is expected to save approximately 50,000 kilowatts of energy, which translates to a reduction of 34.5 metric tpy of CO2.

The net zero energy building project was implemented by the UWI Institute of Sustainable Development with funding from the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and technical assistance from the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). (Source: University of the West Indies, Jamaica Information Service, 27 Oct., 2017) Contact: University of the West Indies, +876 927 1660,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Net-Zero Energy,  

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