Return to Today's Publications


Date Range (YYYY-MM-DD) -
Company, Industry or Technology:
  Search Tips

NYC's Largest Community Solar Project Now Online (Ind. Report)
Date: 2018-12-21
The New York State Energy and Research Development Authority (NYSERDA) is reporting the largest community solar project in New York City is now operational.

The 1.3 MW array in Brooklyn will generate sufficient energy for approximately 200 households and businesses. The solar array, which was developed by Daroga Solar, is fully subscribed with 196 total customers -- 70 pct residential, 20 pct small commercial customers and 10 pct low- to moderate-income customers. The project received more than $850,000 from NYSERDA through the state's NY-Sun program. The array incorporates 3,325 panels on the rooftops of two Brooklyn locations. (Source: NYSERDA, PR, 19 Dec., 2018) Contact: NYSERDA, Alicia Barton, Pres., CEO, (518) 862-1090,

More Low-Carbon Energy News NYSERDA,  Community Solar,  Solar,  

Energy Efficiency Included in DC Clean Energy Legislation (Reg & Leg)

Date: 2018-12-21
Renewable Energy Date: 2018-12-21 This week in Washington, D.C. became the only jurisdiction in the country that has enacted a concrete, mandatory, detailed, comprehensive law to reduce emissions at a pace compatible with keeping global temperatures below 1.5 degrees Celsius.

Among its other stipulations, the bill requires existing buildings to meet certain energy efficiency standards, puts a price on carbon emissions, requires the city to source 100 pct of its energy from renewables by 2032, , and mandates the DC Public Service Commission to prioritize addressing climate change.

This climate victory in the nation's capital is the result of a 3-year effort by grassroots organizers, engaged constituents, a coalition of 100 faith leaders, businesses, low income advocates, climate groups, and neighborhood associations. (Source: Citizens' Climate Lobby, Red, Green & Blue, 15 Dec., 2018) Contact: Citizen's Climate Lobby, Max Broad, Washington DC Chapter,,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Energy Efficiency news,  

Energy Efficiency Project Launched in Kauai, Hawaii (Ind. Report)
Date: 2018-12-21
In a deal that includes the implementation of integrated energy efficiency and smart home initiative in 23 buildings on the Hawaiian island of Kauai, Koae Workforce Housing has inked a PPA with Internet of Energy solutions firm EnSync Energy Systems based in Menomonee Falls, Wisconsin.

Under the terms of the agreement, EnSync is providing its smart home energy systems which include a 516KW rooftop solar, 603KWh of energy storage and smart home energy communications, command and control platform that helps manage the impact of vacancy rates, time of day absences and unit level micro-loading effects in multi-unit properties or communities, facilitating energy efficiency across the network. (Source: EnSync Energy, Smart Energy Int'l, 21 Dec., 2018) Contact: EnSync Energy, Brad Hansen, CEO, (262)253.9800, (808) 478-2163 - Honolulu Office,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Energy Efficiency. EnSync,  Solar,  Energy Storage,  

Ringneck's Onida Ethanol Plant Mar. Startup Expected (Ind. Report)
Ringneck Energy
Date: 2018-12-21
Further to our October 13th, 2017 coverage, Ringneck Energy reports its building contractor, Fagen Inc., is near to completing its $150 million, corn ethanol plant near Onida, about 33 miles northeast of the South Dakota capitol city of Pierre. A stsrtup date of 1 March, 2019 is expected.

When fully operational, the plant is expected to use about 29 million bpy of corn to produce 80 million gpy of ethanol, as well as 240,000 tpy of distillers grain(DDGs). (Source: Ringneck Energy, Capital Journal, 19 Dec., 2018)Contact: Ringneck Energy LLC, Walt Wendland, Pres., CEO, (605) 258-2900,,; Fagen Inc., (320) 564-3324,

More Low-Carbon Energy News DDGs,  Fagen,  Ringneck Energy,  Corn Ethanol,  Ethanol,  

PKN ORLEN Refocusing, Investing in Biofuels (Int'l Report)
Date: 2018-12-21
In Polnad, PKN ORLEN reports it is preparing preparing a new renewable energy directive (RED II) focused on second-generation biofuels made from algae, straw and other waste materials and, to that end, will increase its biofuel related R&D activities, construct biofuel production facilities and other support infrastructure.

According to a statement, PKN ORLEN will use its existing refinery units in Płock and Litvínov to take the co-hydrotreatment process to an industrial scale. The process consists of co-feeding vegetable oils or used fats with petroleum distillates into refinery units. The output diesel oil contains a bio-component -- hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO).

The decision to take the co-hydrotreatment process to an industrial scale was prompted by the successful completion of a test run carried out in September 2018 under the CO-BIO project, partly financed with a grant under the Inno-Chem programme. (Source: PKN ORLEN, Petrol Plaza, Dec., 2018) Contact: PKN ORLEN, Armen Artwich, Member of the Management Board,

More Low-Carbon Energy News PKN ORLEN,  Biofuel,  Biodiesel,  

Energy Efficiency Included in DC Clean Energy Legislation (Reg & Leg)

Date: 2018-12-21
Renewable Energy Date: 2018-12-21 This week in Washington, D.C. became the only jurisdiction in the country that has enacted a concrete, mandatory, detailed, comprehensive law to reduce emissions at a pace compatible with keeping global temperatures below 1.5 degrees Celsius.

Among its other stipulations, the bill requires existing buildings to meet certain energy efficiency standards, puts a price on carbon emissions, requires the city to source 100 pct of its energy from renewables by 2032, , and mandates the DC Public Service Commission to prioritize addressing climate change.

This climate victory in the nation's capital is the result of a 3-year effort by grassroots organizers, engaged constituents, a coalition of 100 faith leaders, businesses, low income advocates, climate groups, and neighborhood associations. (Source: Citizens' Climate Lobby, Red, Green & Blue, 15 Dec., 2018)

JA Solar Supplies Brazilian Bifacial Mono PERC Project (Int'l)
JA Solar,SolarGrid
Date: 2018-12-21
JA Solar reports it will supply all bifacial mono PERC double glass modules for Vancouver-headquartered SolarGrid Energia's 3MW PV project in Minas Gerais, Brazil -- Brazil's first bifacial double glass solar project.

When fully operational, the SolarGrid project is expected to generate 7.1 million KWh of electricity per year and cut CO2 emissions by 5,284 tpy. JA bifacial mono PERC double-glass modules can generate electricity 9.5 pct higher when compared to mono PERC single-sided modules, according to JA Solar. (Source: JA Solar, 19 Dec., 2018) Contact: SolarGrid Energy, (888)743 4621, (416) 352 7521 -fax,,; JA Solar Holdings,

More Low-Carbon Energy News JA Solar,  Solar,  

SIMEC Atlantis Quits Nova Scotian Tidal Energy JV (Ind. Report)
SIMEC Atlantis Energy
Date: 2018-12-21
UK-based tidal energy developer SIMEC Atlantis Energy Ltd reports it has formally exited its Canadian tidal power JV and has redeployed two turbines at the MeyGen project in Scotland. SIMEC Atlantis sold its 50 pct interest in Atlantis Operations (Canada) Limited (AOCL) for $400,000 (Cdn) ($297,000 US) to its Irish JV partner at the FORCE facility in Nova Scotia, namely DP Energy which will rename AOCL Rio Fundo Operations Canada Ltd. (Source: SIMEC Atlantis Energy, PR, Renewables, 19 Dec., 2018) Contact: SIMEC Atlantis Energy, +44 131 659 9690,

More Low-Carbon Energy News SIMEC Atlantis Energy,  Tidal Energy,  

New Jersey BPU Sinks 25-MW Offshore Wind Demo (Ind. Report)
New Jersey Board of Public Utilities
Date: 2018-12-21
Reporting from Trenton, the New Jersey Board of Public Utilities (BPU) has rejected the application for the up to 25-MW Nautilus pilot offshore wind project in state waters on the grounds that it was too expensive, the project's benefits were "unsubstantiated" and didn't meet conditions for economic and environmental benefits under the state's Offshore Wind Economic Development Act (OWEDA).

The project, which is being developed by Nautilus Offshore Wind LLC, a partnership between EDF Renewables North America and Atlantic City-based Fishermen's Energy LLC, planned the installation of three MHI Vestas V164-8.3 MW wind turbines about 2.8 miles off the coastline of Atlantic City. The project was planned to come online in 2020. (Source: New Jersey BPU, 18 Dec, 2018) Contact: NJ BPU,; Nautilus Offshore Wind,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Nautilus Offshore Wind,  New Jersey Board of Public Utilities ,  Offshore Wind,  

Ecocem Low-Carbon Cement Touts CO2 Emissions Savings (Int'l)
Date: 2018-12-21
Reporting from Dublin, Europe's largest independent low-carbon cements producer Ecocem has announced that its efforts over 16 years to encourage replacing high-carbon cement with low-carbon cement has resulted in a saving of 10Mt of carbon emissions.

The company's ground-granulated blastfurnace slag (GGBS) cement's carbon footprint is about 95 pct lower than traditional cement at 32kg/t, and can be used as a one-to-one replacement in formulating concrete, according to a press release.

Ecocem operates four plants across Europe with a total capacity of 2.4Mta. (Source: Ecocem, PR, Cement News, 20 Dec., 2018) Contact: Ecocem, +353 1 678 1800, +353 1 678 1816,,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Ecocem,  Carbon Emissions,  CO2,  

Allianz Acquiring Portugal's Largest Solar Project (M&A, Int'l)
Allianz Capital Partners
Date: 2018-12-21
Allianz Capital Partners on behalf of Allianz insurance companies (Allianz) has signed the acquisition of the 218.8-megawatt (MW) Solara project about 150 mile south-east of Lisbon, Portugal.

At 218.8 MW capacity, Solara can generate sufficient electric power for about 100,000 average Portuguese households per year. Project construction is underway for a planned Summer 2019 commissioning.

Allianz hold 9 solar parks and 83 wind farm located in Austria, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Sweden and the United States. (Source: Allianz, Energy Ind. Review, 20 Dec., 2018) Contact: Allianz Capital Partners, Peter Torstensson Snr. VP, + 46 46 36 72 31, (212) 938-0630 - NYC Office,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Solar,  

Important Notice -- 2018 Christmas Holiday Publishing Schedule
Pub. schedule
Date: 2018-12-21
In celebration of the 2018 Christmas Season, LC Energy Reports will not be publishing on Monday, 24 December through Tuesday, 1 January, 2019. We will resume our regular publishing schedule on Wednesday, 2 January, 2019.

We wish you our Compliments of the Season and a safe, prosperous New Year !

ACEEE, Bloomberg Am. Cities Climate Challenge Partner (Ind. Report)
ACEEE,Bloomberg American Cities Climate Challenge
Date: 2018-12-21
In a blog post, Michael R. Bloomberg announced Charlotte as the nineteenth winning city of Bloomberg's American Cities Climate Challenge.

The $70 million program, which was launched in June, will help 20 winning cities accelerate their ambitious climate efforts by providing significant resources, including technical assistance and staff capacity, to help them reduce carbon emissions by saving energy and using clean energy sources. The selected cities will target energy savings in the buildings and transportation sectors, the sectors most responsible for energy use and carbon emissions.

ACEEE will partner with the Climate Challenge by expanding the program's independent City Clean Energy Scorecard (fka City Energy Efficiency Scorecard) for assessing local energy efficiency policies and programs. The 2019 City Scorecard will expand from scoring 51 of the largest US cities to 75, with the goal of assessing 100 in future editions. The Climate Challenge cities will serve as models for building public-private and community-based energy efficiency strategies, which can save money, create jobs, clean the air, and protect health.(Source: ACEEE, Blog Post, 19 Dec., 2018) Contact: ACEEE, (202) 507-4000,; Bloomberg American Cities Climate Challenge,

More Low-Carbon Energy News ACEEE,  American Cities Climate Challenge,  

UK Suspended from EU ETS Pending BREXIT Resolution (Int'l Report)
Date: 2018-12-21
In Brussels, the European Commission (EC) reports that as of January 1, 2019, it has temporarily suspended EU ETS emissions trading system processes related to Britain's convoluted and contentious BREXIT is concluded. Accordingly, the UK Britain will be unable to auction carbon permits, allocate them for free to operators, or exchange international credits for as long as the suspension remains in place, the EC added in a statement.

From January, any carbon permits issued by Britain will have to be identified by a country code ("marked") but transfers of permits already in circulation in and out of accounts held by UK operators will not be affected by the suspension. If BREXIT is ratified the suspension will be lifted, the EC added. (Source: European Commission, Reuters, 20 Dec., 2018)

More Low-Carbon Energy News European Commission,  Carbon Credits,  BREXIT,  EU ETS,  

ExxonMobil Awarded RFS "Hardship Waiver" (Ind. Report)
Exxon Mobil,Renewable Fuel Standard
Date: 2018-12-21
Reuters is reporting the oil juggernaut ExxonMobil, with more than $19 billion in net income for 2017, has been granted a Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) "financial hardship waiver" from the EPA for its 60,000 bpd Billings Refinery in Montana.

ExxonMobil's poor cousin Chevron, with a net 2017 income of only $9.2 billion, also scored a "hardship waiver" for its refinery in Utah on the grounds that without the waiver its refineries would be "at disadvantage in this competitive market."

Under the RFS, oil refiners must increasingly blend ethanol and other biofuels into their fuel each year or purchase blending credits from those that do. The 2005 regulation was intended to help farmers and to cut fuel imports. But small oil refineries can be exempted from the standard if they prove compliance would cause disproportionate hardship. The EPA granted 29 waivers for the 2017 compliance year, up from 14 in 2015 and 20 in 2016. (Source: ExxonMobil, OilPrice, Reuters, 20 Dec., 2018)

More Low-Carbon Energy News ExxonMobil,  RFS,  Hardship Waiver,  

Pacific Ethanol Furloughs Workers, Idles Neb. Plant (Ind. Report)
Pacific Ethanol
Date: 2018-12-21
According to Reuters, Pacific Ethanol Inc has idled 45 million gallons of production capacity and laid off 26 of 60 workers at an ethanol plant in Aurora, Nebraska, due to "poor economics in biofuel production." Another part of the plant, with capacity to make 110 million gpy continues to operate. With this and other closings, the company has reportedly mothballed approximately 20 pct of its total U.S. ethanol production capacity.

Street Insider notes that U.S. ethanol producers have been suffering from declining biofuel prices, higher corn feedstock and natural gas prices and the uncertainty of ethanol exports to China,resulting from Trump's self imposed trade war with Beijing. (Source: Pacific Ethanol, StreetInsider, Reuters, 19 Dec., 2018)Contact: Pacific Ethanol, Paul Kohler, Pres., CEO, (916) 403-2790, Furlough,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Pacific Ethanol,  Ethanol,  Biofuel ,  

Senators Coons, Flake Table Bipartisan Carbon Tax, Climate Change Legislation (Reg & Leg)
Climate Chang
Date: 2018-12-21
Yesterday in Washington, U.S. Senators Chris Coons (D-Del.) and Jeff Flake (R-Ariz.) tables the bipartisan Energy Innovation and Carbon Dividend Act that places an increasing price -- carbon tax -- on carbon and other GHG emissions. The legislation is designed to drive down pollution, reduce U.S. carbon emissions by 33 pct within a decade, create employment, encourage market-driven innovation in clean energy technologies, and to pay a monthly dividend directly to every American family.

Download Energy Innovation and Carbon Dividend Act key points HERE. (Source: Office of Sen. Christopher Coons, KTAR News, 19 Dec., 2018) Contact: Senator Christopher Coons,

More Low-Carbon Energy News GHGs,  Greenhouse Gas,  Climate Change,  Carbon Tax,  

Wash. DC Adopts Renewable Energy, Carbon Tax Bill (Reg & Leg)
Renewable Energy
Date: 2018-12-21
This week in Washington, D.C. became the only jurisdiction in the country that has enacted a concrete, mandatory, detailed, comprehensive law to reduce emissions at a pace compatible with keeping global temperatures below 1.5 degrees Celsius.

The legislation puts a price on carbon and requires the city to source 100 pct of its energy from renewables by 2032. It also require existing buildings to meet certain energy efficiency standards, levies an extra tax on the purchase of gas-guzzling cars and use the money to make electric vehicles more affordable. It also requires the city to operate 100 pct electric buses by 2030, and mandates the DC Public Service Commission to prioritize addressing climate change.

This climate victory in the nation's capital is the result of a 3-year effort by grassroots organizers, engaged constituents, a coalition of 100 faith leaders, businesses, low income advocates, climate groups, and neighborhood associations. (Source: Citizens' Climate Lobby, Red, Green & Blue, 15 Dec., 2018) Contact: Citizen's Climate Lobby, Max Broad, Washington DC Chapter,,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Citizens Climate Lobby,  Carbon Emissions,  Carbon Tax,  Renewable Energy,  

8 New RFS "Hardship" Waiver Applications Since 10 Nov. (Ind. Report)
Date: 2018-12-21
In Washington, the US EPA is reporting receipt of seven new Renewable Fuel Standard “hardship” waiver petitions for the 2018 compliance year and one new petition for the 2017 compliance year as of Nov. 10 , 2018

For the 2017 compliance year, the EPA has received 37 small refinery petitions, up from the 36 it had received as of Nov. 10. Twenty-nine of the 37 petitions have been approved , 7 ar pending and 1 was withdrawn. The 29 approved petitions exempted 13.62 billion gallons of gasoline and diesel from meeting the RFS blending targets.

Under the RFS, oil refiners must increasingly blend ethanol and other biofuels into their fuel each year or purchase blending credits from those that do. The 2005 regulation was intended to help farmers and to cut fuel imports. But small oil refineries can be exempted from the standard if they prove compliance would cause disproportionate hardship. The EPA granted 29 waivers for the 2017 compliance year, up from 14 in 2015 and 20 in 2016. (Source: EPA, Dec. 20, 2018)

More Low-Carbon Energy News Renewable Fuel Standard,  Hardship Waiver,  Biofuel Blending,  

India Claims 20 pct Cut in Emissions Intensity (Int'l Report)
Carbon Emissions, India
Date: 2018-12-19
The Indian Bureau of Energy Efficiency reports India has achieved a 20 pct reduction in its emissions intensity against the 33 pct level India committed to attain by 2030 at the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The government's programmes on energy conservation and efficiency including the star labelling programme, energy savings scheme for industrial units, LED lamps distribution and efficient buildings code are being credited for the reduction in carbon emissions. Other energy saving initiatives include a campaign to make default temperature setting of air conditioners at 24 degrees Celsius and a push for cleaner transportation.

At COP15 in Paris, India committed to reduce the emissions intensity of its GDP by 33-35 pct by 2030 from the 2005 level. It also pledged to shift 40 pct of its installed power generation capacity to non-fossil-fuel-based energy resources. (Source: Indian Bureau of Energy Efficiency, Economic Times India, 14 Dec., 2018) Contact: Indian Bureau of Energy Efficiency,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Carbon Emissions,  Emissions Intensity,  UNFCCC,  

Bank of America Stadium Energy Efficiency Lauded (Ind. Report)
Energy Efficiency
Date: 2018-12-19
TRANE, a global indoor energy services provider, reports it has recognized the Bank of America Stadium in Charlotte, North Carolina, with its Energy Efficiency Leader Award. The award is in recognition of the stadiums recent energy efficiency upgrades that are expected to save the facility as much as $80,000 per year in energy costs. (Source: TRANE, WCNC, Dec. 18, 2018) Contact: TRANE, (844) 883-0698,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Trane,  Energy Efficiency,  

NYPA OKs $600Mn Energy Efficiency Finance Credit Line (Ind. Report)
New York Power Authority
Date: 2018-12-19
The New York Power Authority (NYPA) reports its board of trustees has approved a $600 million revolving credit facility to support the Authority's issuance of commercial, short-term paper notes to support its present customer energy-efficiency programs.

NYPA offers various energy-efficiency programs for its customers, including universities, municipalities, school districts and largest cities. The NYPA programs are design-build energy project services, digital energy management and demand response capabilities.

The new revolving credit facility will replace an existing revolving credit agreement set to expire on Jan. 18. NYPA currently has $531 million of series 1, 2 and 3 commercial paper notes outstanding to support numerous projects across the Empire State.

NYPA is the nation's largest state public power organization, through the operation of its 16 generating facilities and more than 1,400 circuit-miles of transmission lines (Source: NYPA, Niagara Frontier Publications, 18 Dec., 2018) Contact: NYPA, Gil C. Quiniones, Pres., CEO,

More Low-Carbon Energy News New York Power Authority,  Energy Efficiency,  

MEO Issues Matching Funds Energy Efficiency Rebates (Ind. Report)
Michigan Energy Office
Date: 2018-12-19
The Michigan Energy Office (MEO) is reporting the issuance of a matching $9,750 rebate for energy efficiency improvements to Independent Machine Co. in Escanaba.

To qualify for the rebate, the company installed a power monitoring and control system across their manufacturing operations to implement a range of energy saving procedures including soft motor starts, energy efficient LED lighting, and others. The company estimates it will shave 26,000 kilowatt-hours at a cost savings of $4,000 off its annual energy consumption and costs.

Details on the MEO Small Manufacturers Energy Waste Reduction Incentive Pilot program are HERE. (Source: Michigan Energy Office, PR, 14 Dec., 2018) Contact: Michigan Energy Office,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Energy Efficiency,  

Crown Touts Biodiesel Manufacturing Process Upgrade (Ind. Report)
Crown Iron Works
Date: 2018-12-19
In Blaine, Minnesota, Crown Iron Works, a leader in the oilseed processing industry, is reporting a new process upgrade for biodiesel manufacturers -- advanced catalyst reduction and economization (ACRE).

ACRE allows biodiesel processing plants to run at the lowest operating cost and highest efficiency by adding a third transesterification reaction step while also delivering an energy-efficient design for reduced cooling load and steam use with a variety of feedstocks. Plants using ACRE are achieving 40-plus percent catalyst reduction and experiencing savings of 3 cents per gallon, according to the company. (Source: Crown Iron Works, PR, Biodiesel Mag., December 17, 2018) Contact: Crown Iron Works,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Biodiesel,  Oilseed ,  

New Jersey Planning to Rejoin RGGI Pact (Ind. Report)
Date: 2018-12-19
In Trenton, New Jersey governor Phil Murphy (D) reports the Garden State's Department of Environmental Protection has formally proposed two rules intended to ease New Jersey's re-entry into the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI). In 2011, former Republican governor and presidential wannabe Chris Christie pulled the state out of the pact at an estimated loss of $154 million in potential revenue.

REGGI members New England states working to reduce carbon-dioxide gas emissions from the energy sector through a cap-and-trade auction process that encourages more market efficiencies, invests in renewable energy, and improves power-plant technology. New Jersy was a founding member of RGGI. Present membership includes Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Rhode Island, and Vermont. Virginia is planning to join RGGI.

The first of the two proposed rules establishes the mechanisms for rejoining RGGI and sets the initial carbon-dioxide cap for the state's electricity generation sector at 18 million tons in 2020. The 18-million-ton CO2 cap in the Emissions Trading Rule proposal is below the estimated actual emissions of 20.6 million tons in 2020. The cap will decline 3 pct per year through 2030 with other adjustments that are standard to all member states.

The second rule establishes the framework for how the state will spend proceeds from RGGI carbon-dioxide allowance auctions.

Access the rule proposals HERE. Information on New Jersey's re-entry to RGGI is HERE. (Source: State of New Jersey, Office of Gov. Phil Murphy, PR, 17 Dec., 2018) Contact: Office of the Governor, (609) 292-6000,; RGGI,

More Low-Carbon Energy News RGGI,  New Jersey RGGI,  

Black Hills Energy Planning $57Mn Wyoming Wind Farm (Ind. Report)
Black Hills Energy
Date: 2018-12-19
Rapid City, South Dakota-based Black Hills Energy reports it is seeking South Dakota Public Utilities Commission approval for a Renewable Ready Service Tariff to offer renewable energy resources to large commercial and industrial customers and government agencies.

The proposal would give large scale customers the option of purchasing renewable energy resources through a subscription program to fulfill up to 100 percent of their electricity needs for periods ranging from 5 to 25 years.

Additionally, Black Hills Energy is seeking to construct a 40-MW wind-energy facility near Cheyenne, Wyoming. If approved, the $57 million Corriedale Wind Energy Project would come online in the fall of 2020. Black Hills Energy's utility and power-generation subsidiaries operate 89 megawatts of wind-generation facilities that serve utility customers in Colorado. Another 60-megawatt wind project in Colorado is expected to be in service by the end of 2019. (Source: Black Hills Energy, Rapid City Journal, 17 Dec., 2018)Contact: Black Hills Energy,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Black Hills Energy,  Wind,  

EU NoPs Agree on Auto Emission Reduction Targets (Int'l. Report)
Date: 2018-12-19
This week in Brussels, EU parliamentarians (MoPs) reportedly agreed on a 37.5 pct reduction in automobile and van CO2 emissions by 2030. Previously, the European Commission proposed a 30 pct reduction rate for both vehicle types, while Parliament called for 40 pct cuts.

The agreed upon target will be calculated based on 2021 emission levels, with an intermediary step of 15 pct CO2 cut for both cars and vans to be reached by 2025. The new targets are subject to EU member state approvals. (Source: EurActiv, 17 Dec., 2018)

More Low-Carbon Energy News EU,  Vehicle Emissions,  

Duke's 2018 Solar Rebates Total $10Mn (Ind. Report)
Duke Energy
Date: 2018-12-19
Duke Energy says it expects rebates for rooftop solar panels in North Carolina to total about $10 million this year. Applications for the second year of the five-year program will be available beginning Jan. 2. Duke will hand out a total of $62 million in solar rebates over the five years under the program required by a 2017 state law. Homeowners can get up to $6,000 in rebates, businesses up to $50,000 and nonprofits up to $75,000.

The $10 million in rebates for 2018 includes about $6 million paid to 1,300 property owners, plus money still to be paid for systems installed this year. About 96 pct of the rebates were paid to homeowners to cover approximately one-third of the cost of a typical solar installation, according to the Duke press release.

Access information on the Duke Solar Rebate program HERE. (Source: Duke Energy, NPR, 18 Dec., 2018) Contact: Duke Energy,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Duke Energy,  Solar,  Solar Rebates,  

Clenera, CIPCO Announce Major Iowa Solar Project (Ind. Report)
Central Iowa Power Cooperative,Clenera LLC
Date: 2018-12-19
Central Iowa Power Cooperative (CIPCO) is reporting a partnership with Boise, Idaho-based solar energy specialist Clenera LLC to develop the Wapello Solar project which it claims will be the Hawkeye State's largest solar project.

Under the terms of their agreement, CIPCO will purchase 100 pct of the proposed 100 MW solar project's output for 25 years.

Clenera will develop and operate the Wapello Solar project and retain all associated renewable energy credits. The project is expected to come online in December, 2020. (Source: Central Iowa Power Cooperative, Solar Industry, 17 Dec., 2018) Contact: Central Iowa Power Cooperative, Bill Cherrier, CEO, Exec. VP, (319) 366-8011,; Clenera LLC, Jason Ellsworth, CEO, 208-639-3232,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Central Iowa Power Cooperative,  Wind,  Solar,  Renewable Energy,  

Greengate's Stirling Wind Project Wins AESO Contract (Ind Report)
Greengate Power Corporation
Date: 2018-12-19
Calgary, Alberta-headquartered Greengate Power Corp. is reporting that its 113 MW Stirling Wind Project has been awarded a 20-year, guaranteed price Renewable Electricity Support Agreement (RESA) by the Alberta Electric System Operator (AESO).

Stirling Wind, near the city of Lethbridge, is jointly-owned by Greengate, Potentia Renewables Inc. and Paul First Nation with Potentia owning a majority interest.

Privately-held Greengate has developed 480 MW of operating wind energy projects in Alberta and Ontario, Canada representing approximately $1 billion of investment. (Source: Greengate, PR, 17 Dec., 2018) Contact: Greengate Power Corp., Dan Balaban, Pres., CEO, Dan Phaure, VP Bus. Dev., (403) 930-1300,; Alberta Electric System Operator, David Erikson, CEO,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Greengate Power ,  Wind,  

Canmore Considers Energy Efficiency, PACE Financing (Ind. Report)
Energy Efficiency
Date: 2018-12-19
In Alberta, the town of Canmore (pop. 14,00 +-) town council reports it has approved a Climate Action Plan that aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 80 pct by 2050. By 2030, the plan proposes that the community will reduce its GHG emissions by 30 per cent below 2015 levels and 80 pct below 2015 levels, which is aligned with Federal GHG emission targets.

In anticipation of the potential risks and opportunities presented by these changes, the Plan proposes retrofits to 80 pct of existing buildings to improve energy efficiency. Proposed improvements include the installation of weather stripping, extra insulation and high efficiency windows, energy efficient appliances and lighting, the adoption of electric or hybrid vehicles, as well as significantly cutting solid waste and moving forward with an organics collection system.

The city is also considering a PACE (Property Assessed Clean Energy) bylaw allowing city residents to make energy efficiency upgrades to their homes, or install solar PV systems, and finance these through their property tax payments. (Source: Town of Canmore, PR, Crag & Canyon, 18 Dec., 2018) Contact: Town of Canmore, Lori Rissling Wynn, Sustainability Coordinator and Development Planner , (403) 678-1500,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Energy Efficiency,  PACE,  

Aussie Hardwood Waste-to-Renewable Diesel Explored (Int'l)
Date: 2018-12-19
Further to our 27th August report, In the Land Down Under, lumber and building materials supplier BORAL and the Australian Renewable Energy Agency (ARENA) are reported to have joined forces to fund a $1.2 million (AUS) feasibility study of a proposed a second-generation woody biomass biorefinery in New South Wales (NSW).

The study will explore the potential conversion of up to 50,000 tonnes of sawmill hardwood residues from a BORAL owned sawmill near Port Macquarie, NSW, into renewable transport-grade diesel and bitumen using world-first technology. The study will consider a mechanical catalytic conversion technology, developed by Spanish-based Global Ecofuel Solutions, combined with the potential biorefinery. The process has never before been used in a production-scale facility.(Source: BORAL, ARENA, AggNet, 18 Dec., 2018) Contact: ARENA, Ivor Frischknecht, CEO, +61 2 6243 7773,,; Boral Limited,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Renewable Diesel,  Biofuel,  Renewable Fuel,  ARENA,  BORAL,  

Pa. Petition Offers Pathway to RGGI Carbon Cap-and-Trade Participation (Ind. Report)
Date: 2018-12-19
In the Keystone State, a recent petition signed by 60 or more legal scholars, environmental organizations, clean energy players and others could give the state an opening to join the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI)-- a cap-and-trade effort among nine northeastern states to lower carbon emissions and drive clean energy investments.

The petitioners argue Pennsylvania regulators have the legal authority and constitutional duty to address climate change and ask them to create an economy-wide cap-and-trade program, using California as a model. The move triggers a legal process to which the state is required respond.

Petitioners claim the state's Air Pollution Control Act allows for such an action, and the state's Environmental Rights Amendment requires it. The petition is now being reviewed by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, and will then go before the state's Environmental Quality Board, which can decide whether to move forward with it or not.

A report published by RGGI last year said participating states were able to cut power sector carbon pollution over 45 percent since 2005, while the region’s economy grew. The Investment of RGGI Proceeds in 2017 report is HERE. (Source: RGGI, Energy News, Dec., 2018) Contact: RGGI,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Carbon Emissions,  Climate Change,  RGGI,  

Neste, ScanOcean Partner on Marine Fuel Distribution (Int'l)
Date: 2018-12-19
In Helsinki, Finnish renewable fuel producer Neste reports it is partnering with bunker and marine fuel supplier ScanOcean AB to deliver and resell Neste's low-sulfur marine fuel in the Stockholm area on the east coast of Sweden.

With this agreement, Neste's marine fuels are now available at all Finnish ports and through ScanOcean cooperation, according to the press release. (Source: Neste, PR, Biofuels Int'l, 18 Dec., 2018)Contact: Neste Oil Corp., Kaisa Hietala, VP Renewable Products , Jacob Granqvist, Marine Fuels & Services Manager, +358 10 458 4128,; ScanOcean AB, Jonatan Karlstrom, GM,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Renewabole Fuel,  Renewable Diesel,  Neste,  Marine Fuel,  Biofuel,  

TOTAL S.A. Fighting Climate Change with CCUS (Int'l. Report)
Date: 2018-12-19
Government Europa is reporting TOTAL S.A., a major energy operator, is inviting stakeholders to join its Carbon Capture Utilisation and Storage (CCUS) research community which is seeking new energy sector approaches and policies to deal with growing carbon emissions and climate change.

TOTAL aims to reduce the carbon emissions produced by its facilities and reduce the carbon intensity of the products it produces. To that end, TOTAL S.A.plans to earmark up to 10 pct of its R&D budget to the progress of Carbon Capture Utilisation and Storage (CCUS). TOTAL is a French multinational integrated oil and gas company and one of the seven "Supermajor" oil companies in the world (Source: TOTAL, Government Europa, 18th December , 2018) Contact: Government Europa, +44 (0)1260 273 802,; TOTAL,

More Low-Carbon Energy News TOTAL S.A.,  CCS,  CCU,  CO2,  Carbon Capture,  

American GreenFuels' Bioheat® Reduces CO2 Emissions (Ind. Report)
American GreenFuels
Date: 2018-12-19
New Haven, Conn.-based biodiesel producer American GreenFuels, LLC is touting its You Are What You Heat campaign to promote their biodiesel Bioheat® blended heating oil -- a renewable, lower carbon cleaner-burning alternative to diesel fuel.

According to American GreenFuels, Bioheat® provides greenhouse gas savings of minimum 78 pct up to 93 pct as compared with ultra low sulfur heating oil and meets ASTM D6751 specification standards. (Source: American GreenFuels, LLC, PR, 18 Dec., 2018) Contact: American GreenFuels, Raf Aviner, Pres.,

More Low-Carbon Energy News American GreenFuels,  Biofuel,  Biodiesel,  Carbon Emissions,  

Green Plains Idling Otter Tail Ethanol Plant (Ind. Report)
Green Plains
Date: 2018-12-19
NEW YORK, Dec 18 (Reuters) - Further to our 19th November coverage, Omaha-headquartered ethanol producer Green Plains Inc plans to idle its 55 million gpy Otter Tail ethanol plant in Fergus Falls, Minnesota, until Spring 2019, amid weak margins, according to a Reuters report.

As previously reported, Green Plains has idled several plants and sold others, in response to a downturn in the ethanol market. (Source: Green Plains, Reuters, 18 Dec., 2018) Contact: Green Plains, Jim Stark, VP-IR, (402) 884-8700,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Otter Tail,  Green Plains,  Biofuel,  Ethanol,  

Ecolab, Clearway Energy Ink 100-MW Wind VPPA (Ind. Report)
Ecolab, Clearway Energy Group
Date: 2018-12-19
St. Paul, Minnesota-based water, hygiene and energy services provider Ecolab Inc is reporting the signing of a virtual power purchase agreement (VPPA) with Clearway Energy Group for 100 MW of wind energy from Clearway's proposed 419-MW Mesquite Star wind project in Fisher County, Texas. Construction is expected to get underway in the first half of 2019, according to the announcement.

Clearway presently has 4.1 GW of renewable energy projects, including 2.8 GW of wind, 1.1 GW of utility solar and more than 300 MW of distributed and community solar. This includes assets owned through affiliate Clearway Energy Inc. (Source: Ecolab,PR, Dec., 2018) Contact: Ecolab Inc.,; Clearway Energy Group. John Woody, VP Bus. Dev.,,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Clearway Energy Group,  Ecolab,  Wind ,  

GSA Foresees Improved Energy Efficiency within Decade (Ind. Report)
General Services Administration
Date: 2018-12-19
In Washington, the U.S. Energy Department and the General Services Administration (GSA) see an uptick in energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs) and utility energy service contracts (UESCs), while the U.S. Army, the biggest adopter of ESPCs, looks to strengthen the resiliency of its electrical grid through these smart energy projects.

A bipartisan bloc of lawmakers on the House Energy and Commerce Committee have also found common ground on the contracting vehicle federal agencies can use to upgrade their offices with energy-efficiency technology. Through the indefinite delivery indefinite-quantity (IDIQ) contract vehicle the Energy Department's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) program manages, agencies have awarded more than 400 ESPC projects, invested more than $6 billion and saved nearly $14 billion in energy costs since 1998. In fiscal 2018 alone, federal agencies awarded $809 million in facility infrastructure investment, according to FEMP.

With ESPCs, contractors finance the upfront cost and certify that the upgrades will generate sufficient savings to cover the initial cost of the project. The agency pays an annual amount to the contractor for a fixed period of time, while the contractors get paid through the energy savings achieved by agencies. Across the government, agencies face a repair backlog of more than $150 billion, according to the GSA. (Source: GSA, Federal News, 18 Dec., 2018)Contact: GSA, Kevin Kampschroer, CSO, (202) 357-9582,

More Low-Carbon Energy News General Services Administration ,  Energy Efficiency,  

Allete Refurbishing 83-Turbine Oregon Wind Farm (Ind. Report)
Allete Inc
Date: 2018-12-19
Minnesota-based Allete Inc. subsidiary Allete Clean Energy reports it is refurbishing its 50-MW Condon Wind power facility in Oregon as part of a fleet-wide optimization strategy.

The refurbishing, which will include new equipment and system upgrades, is expected to extend the operating life of the wind park and better position it for extending its existing contract with the Bonneville Power Administration when it expires in late 2022. (Source: Allete Clean Energy, PR, Various Media, Renewables, 18 Dec., 2018) Contact: Allete Clean Energy, Allan S. Rudeck Jr., Pres., Vince Meyer, IR, (218) 723-3952,,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Allete,  Wind,  Allete Clean Energy ,  

Solar-plus-Storage Added to O'ahu Renewables Lineup (Ind. Report)
Hawaiian Electric
Date: 2018-12-19
In Honolulu, Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) is reporting another solar-plus-storage project is now planned for O'ahu, joining three other grid-scale solar projects recently selected by HECO in a procurement effort to expand the Aloha State's renewable energy portfolio.

The 12.5-MW solar array will be in West O'ahu and include a 50-MWh storage system, details of which will be released at a leter date.

Hawaiian Electric is currently negotiating PPAs with developers of the solar projects to set the terms for them to sell electricity to the utility. The goal is to complete the agreements so the projects can take advantage of federal tax credits. Final terms will be announced when the agreements are submitted to the Public Utilities Commission for review.

Including the latest project, there are now five major grid-scale projects announced for O'ahu in recent weeks, part of the largest infusion of renewable energy in state history. The projects -- four solar and one wind project -- are designed to generate 186 megawatts, displacing an estimated 800,000 barrels of oil annually. Previously announced projects on O'ahu include: Kunia Solar, 52 MW with 218 MWh storage; Mililani Solar, 39 MW with 156 MWh storage; Waipio Solar, 36 MW with 144 MWh storage; and Palehua Wind, 46.8 MW. Several other major renewable projects totaling 154 MW are under construction or awaiting permitting on O'ahu. (Source: Hawaiian Electric, PR, 18 Dec., 2018) Contact: Hawaiian Electric,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Hawaiian Electric,  Solar,  Energy STorage,  

Bosselman Opens New E-15, E-85 Fueling Stations (Ind. Report)
Date: 2018-12-17
Grand Island, Nebraska-headquartered Bosselman Enterprises is reporting the opening of its new E15 and E85 retail facility in Iowa. With the opening, the 75-year old company now has 45 outlets spread across 22 states.

There are 25 ethanol plants producing approximately 2.5 billion gpy of ethanol from more than 700 million bushels of corn grown by Nebraska farmers. (Source: Bosselman Enterprises, Grand Island Independent, 14 Dec., 2018) Contact: Bosselman Enterprises, (308) 381-2800,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Biofuel,  Ethanol,  Ehanol Blend,  

Sempra, ConEdison Completes Renewable Energy Assets Sale (M&A)
Sempra Energy,CopnEdison
Date: 2018-12-17
Further to our 24th Sept. coverage, Sempra Energy reports the closure of the sale of its U.S. operating solar assets, solar and battery storage development projects, and ownership interest in one wind facility to Consolidated Edison Inc. for approximately $1.6 billion in cash, subject to customary post-closing adjustments.

The transaction included Mesquite Solar 2 and 3 in Arizona, Copper Mountain Solar 1 and 4 in Nevada, Great Valley Solar in California, and solar and battery storage development projects. Additionally, Con Edison acquired Sempra Energy's interest in jointly owned facilities, including Mesquite Solar 1; Copper Mountain Solar 2 and 3; the Alpaugh, Corcoran and White River solar facilities in California; and the Broken Bow II wind facility in Nebraska. The sale represents approximately 980 MW AC of installed capacity.

Sempra Energy intends to use the sale proceeds for debt reduction and to expand its regulated Texas utility platform through Oncor Electric Delivery Co. LLC's pending acquisition of InfraREIT Inc. (Source: Sempra Energy, PR, 14 Dec., 2018) Contact: ConEdison, Jorge J. Lopez, Pres., CEO, (914) 286-7094,; Sempra Energy, Inv. Relations, (619) 696-2901,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Sempra Energy,  ConEdison,  

Global CO2 Emissions Rise to Record High in 2018 (Int'l)
Climate Cgange
Date: 2018-12-17
According to the recent IPCCC report, global CO2 and other GHG emission spiked to record highs in 2018, despite remaining relatively flat between 2014 and 2016. In 2017, global emissions grew 1.6 pct and is projected to rise 2.7 pct in 2018 bringing fossil fuel and industrial CO2 emissions to a record high of 37.1 billion tpy. The rise is being widely attributed to being driven by nearly 5 pct emissions growth in China, over 6 pct in India, and in many other nations. U.S. emissions grew 2.5 pct while EU emissions dropped just under 1 pct. (Source: IPCCC, Portland Press Herald, 5 Dec., 2019)

More Low-Carbon Energy News IPCC,  Climate Change,  Carbon Emissions,  

Canadian Solar Closes on 68-MW Mexican Solar Finance Pkg (Int'l)
Canadian Solar
Date: 2018-12-17
Guelph, Ontario-based Canadian Solar Inc. is reporting closure on $69 million in non-recourse project financing for the 67.8-MWp Aguascalientes solar project in Mexico. The financing package, which was arranged with Banco Nacional de Comercio Exterior SNC (Bancomext) and Banco de Sabadell SA in Spain, includes a USD-53.2-million long-term loan, a $5.6-million letter of credit facility and a $10.2-million Value Added Tax (VAT) short-term loan. The long-term loan will be used to re pay a $45-million construction loan obtained from Natixis, a unit of Groupe BPCE, in August.

The Aguascalientes solar park is expected to start commercial operations by the end of the month.

Canadian Solar claims a 436 MWp late-stage pipeline with contracted PPAs in the country. (Source: Canadian Solar, PR, NASDAQ, 14, Dec., 2018) Contact: Canadian Solar, Dr. Shawn Qu, CEO,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Canadian Solar,  Solar,  

US Offshore Wind Auction Draws $405Mn in Bids (Ind. Report)

Date: 2018-12-17
In Washington, the US Department of Interior (DoI) is reporting its recent offshore wind lease auction of about 390,000 acres off the coast of Massachusetts has drawn a record $405 million in winning bids from Equinor Wind, Vineyard Wind and Mayflower Wind.

If fully developed, the three parcels near Martha's Vineyard and Block Island could generate about 4.1 gigawatts of energy -- sufficient power for as many as 1.5 million homes.

There are currently 15 active wind leases in federal waters that have generated more than $473 million in winning bids for nearly two million acres in federal waters, according to BOEM. (Source: US DoI,Workboat,Various Media, 14 Dec., 2018) Contact: Equinor Wind,(508) 717-8964, Vineyard Wind,;

More Low-Carbon Energy News Offshore Wind,  Equinor Wind,  ,  Mayflower Wind Energy ,  Vineyard Wind,  

WBCSD Launches New Energy Solutions Project (Int'l Report)
World Business Council for Sustainable Development
Date: 2018-12-17
The Swiss-headquartered World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) is reporting the December 10th launch of its newest project, New Energy Solutions.

By facilitating cross-sectoral collaboration, the project aims to scale up pre-commercial and/or proven low-carbon technologies that are being deployed too slowly across the transportation and other energy sectors.

The New Energy Solutions project aims to help commercial and industrial companies from all sectors make headway with proven technologies and low-carbon fuels, the uptake of green bonds for renewable fuels and projects, corporate renewable power purchase agreements, and low-carbon microgrids for commercial and industrial customers.

Together, project members are identifying and implementing technologies, fuels and solutions that help companies transition to low-carbon energy sources in line with the Paris Agreement. (Source: World Business Council for Sustainable Development, Climate Home, 10 Dec., 2018) Contact: WBCSD, Maria Mendiluce, Managing Director,

More Low-Carbon Energy News World Business Council for Sustainable Development,  

Golden State Mandating Carbon-Free Buses by 2029 (Ind. Report)
California Air Resources Board
Date: 2018-12-17
In Sacramento, the California Air Resources Board unanimously agreed last week to require all new buses be carbon-free by 2029. Environmental advocates project that the last buses emitting greenhouse gases will be phased out by 2040.

California presently has 153 zero-emission buses on the road now with hundreds more on order. Most of them are electric, though technology also exists for buses powered by hydrogen fuel cells. Existing state and federal subsidies are available to help transit agencies absorb some of the higher costs of carbon-free buses, along with money from the state's settlement with Volkswagen over the German automaker's emission-cheating software.

The transportation sector accounts for 40 pct of California's greenhouse gases, and those emissions are rising even as electrical emissions have fallen substantially. California needs to drastically reduce transportation emissions to meet its aggressive climate change goals. (Source: CARB, 14 Dec., 2018) Contact: California Air Resources Board, Melanie Turner, Information Officer, (916) 322-2990,,

More Low-Carbon Energy News California Air Resources Board.Low Carbon FUel,  

House Republicans Call for Axing RFS Ethanol Mandate (Reg & Leg)
Date: 2018-12-17
The Houston Chronicle is reporting US House Republicans are pushing to eliminate the federal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) mandating the blending of ethanol into the nation's fuel supply by 2032 in favor of a requirement that cars built from 2023 on run only on gasoline with a minimum octane level of 95.

The new octane requirement is being pitched as a fuel-neutral mechanism that would retain demand for ethanol into the future while improving vehicle engine efficiency.

Under present legislation the EPA would take over the RFS in 2022 with authority to reduce the ethanol mandate first set by Congress in 2005. Industry players have described the Republican proposal as "unworkable" especially with the possibility of Trump winning a second four-year term. (Source: Various Media, Houston Chronicle, 12 Dec., 2018)

More Low-Carbon Energy News RFS,  Biofuel Blend,  

Fulcrum Commits to $600Mn Centerpoint Biofuels Plant (Ind. Report)
Fulcrum Bioenergy
Date: 2018-12-17
California-based waste-to-fuels specialist Fulcrum BioEnergy, Inc. reports it will invest an estimated $600 million in a 50-acre trash-to-biofuels plant in northwest Indiana. The 50-acre Centerpoint Biofuels facility will process 700,000 tpy of garbage into approximately 33 million gpy of transportation fuel.

The project will receive $2.1 million support from the state' Economic Development for a Growing Economy (EDGE) conditional tax credits as well as local incentives. Construction is expected to break ground in 2020. (Source: Fulcrum Bioenergy, WBAA, 14 Dec., 2018) Contact: Fulcrum Bioenergy, Rick Barraza, VP Administration, (925) 224-8244,,,

More Low-Carbon Energy News Fulcrum Bioenergy,  Waste-to-Biofuel,  

Showing 4300 to 4350 of 9283.

Go to page:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186